You are on page 1of 21

CHEMICAL

HAZARDS

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY and HEALTH


BMM1021

Quiz
WRITE YOUR STUDENT SECTION IN YOUR ANSWER!
1. What are the basic steps that should be taken in
order to ensure a safe and healthy workplace and
prevent accidents?
(3 marks)

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

2. List down 3 types of hazards together with


example
(6 marks)

Chemicals provide hazards due to the toxic, flammable,


explosive, corrosive, combustible and reactive hazards
In order to manage chemical materials more efficiently,
we should know the characteristics of the chemicals
and also the nature of the materials that need to be
stored and the risks involved
For prevention, we need
to make its manufacture,
storage, handling and use
160-200 Carcinogens
3,500-8,000 Hazardous
safely
substances
Information on hazardous
70,000-80,000
Marketed
chemicals
chemicals are usually
5-7 million
Known
available in Material
chemicals
Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
or labels

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

INTRODUCTION

1. Flixborough, England, 1974


Rupture inadequately supported bypass pipe
Vapor cloud 30 ton cyclohexane
Explosion & fire inventories (10 days)
28 killed & 89 injured
2. Seveso, Italy, 1976
Reactor out of control
Vapor cloud 2 kg dioxin
700 affected, 730 evacuated
3. Bhopal, India, 1984
Not operating scrubber &
flare system
Vapor cloud 25 ton toxic MIC
2000 killed & 20,000 injured
4. Bright sparklers, Sungai Buluh, Selangor

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

SIGNIFICANT DISASTERS

1. Gases

CLASSIFICATION of chemical
hazards

Volatile & no definite shape or volume of its own


The hazards of gases can be due the method used for
confinement of the gas.
a) Compressed gases hazardous because of the stored
energy
b) Liquified gases hazardous because of extreme low
temperatures of the substance
The gas may have toxic, flammable, corrosive or
oxidising properties
Liquids that can produce flammable at ambient
temperatures and are potentials sources of fire
Other hazards may include toxicity and corrosives

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

2. Flammable liquids

3. Explosive substances
In forms of solid, liquid or mixture which is capable by
chemical reaction
Contain both fuel & oxidant can function
independently of the nature of their surrounding
Eg. : dynamite & carbide

4. Corrosive substances
Will attack skin & materials such as wood or metals
Eg. : sulphuric acid, caustic soda etc
Supply oxygen - readily support & maintain
combustion that increase the rate at which the fire
will develop
Eg. : Sodium chlorate

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

5. Oxidising agent

6. Flammable solids

Readily ignitable solids that cause fast fire propagation


once ignited
Eg. : magnesium, plastics, flour etc

7. Toxic substances

Very hazardous to health when inhaled, swallowed or in


contact with the skin and may lead to death
Eg. : Aniline, arsenic, benzene, beryllium, cyanide etc

IDENTIFICATION of hazardous chemical


Since chemical products are traded and transported
world wide, The United nation Committee of Experts on
Dangerous Goods came out with a recommendation for
the Transport of Dangerous Goods in 1956
Most classified chemicals can be identified from labeling

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

1. United nation classification

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

There are 9 classes of dangerous goods;


1) Explosives classes 1.1 ~ 1.6
Eg. : class 1.1 : TNT, class 1.2 : Bombs etc
2) Gases - classes 2.1 ~ 2.3
Eg. : class 2.1 : acetylene, L.P.G etc
3) Flammable liquids - classes 3.1 ~ 3.4
Eg. : class 3.1 : paint, petrol etc
4) Flammable solids - classes 4.1 ~ 4.3
Eg. : class 4.1 : phosphorous etc
5) Oxidising agents & organic peroxides class 5.1 & 5.2
Eg. : class 5.1 :ammonium nitrate etc
6) Poisonous & Infectious subs.- classes 6.1(a)~ 6.2
Eg. : class 6.1(a) : cyanide, lead compounds etc
7) Radioactive substances
Eg. : Uranium and radioisotopes
8) Corrosives
Eg. : Hydrochloric acid, caustic solutions etc
9) Misc. dangerous substances
Aerosols, polyester beads etc

2. UN numbering
UN committee also came out with a numbering system
for each hazardous chemical
More specific to identify similar chemical with
different name
Only applied to hazardous chemicals
Eg. : - sodium hydroxide = caustic soda 1823
- acetone 1090
- sulphuric acid 1830
- acetylene 1001 etc
Developed by health & safety executive of United
Kingdom is address to the emergency and fire brigade
personnel
It gives them a ready method of controlling a spillage
or fire arising from hazardous chemicals

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

3. HAZCHEM scale

For all hazardous chemicals


Readily available during normal work hours
Immediately accessible during emergencies
Providing the MSDS:
Initial shipment
First shipment after update
Failure to provide the MSDS
DOSH (Dept of safety & health) investigates when
suppliers or manufacturers refuse to provide MSDSs
Remote work sites
MSDS may be kept at central location
Must be readily available
Must be immediately accessible
Kept in any form
Paper
Computer

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS

PROPANE
================================================================================
SECTION I - Product Identification
================================================================================
PRODUCT NAME:
PROPANE
FORMULA:
N/A
FORMULA WT:
N/A
COMMON SYNONYMS:
N/A
================================================================================
SECTION II - Hazardous Components
================================================================================
PROPANE
================================================================================
SECTION III - Physical Data
================================================================================
BOILING POINT:
-44F
VAPOR PRESSURE(MM HG):
N/A
MELTING POINT:
N/A
VAPOR DENSITY(AIR=1):
1.55
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:
N/A
EVAPORATION RATE:
NA
(H20=1)
(BUTYL ACETATE=1)
SOLUBILITY(H20):
N/A
% VOLATILES BY VOLUME:
100
APPEARANCE & ODOR:
COLORLESS-ROTTEN EGG ODOR.
=================================================================================
SECTION IV - Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
=================================================================================
FLAMMABILITY CLASSIFICATION:
UNK
FLASH POINT:
-156F
FLAMMABLE LIMITS:
UPPER - 9.5 %
LOWER - 2.1 %
FIRE EXTINGUISHING MEDIA:
STOP FLOW OF GAS OR OXYGEN
SPECIAL FIRE-FIGHTING PROCEDURES:
USE WATER TO COOL TANK
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS:
AUTO IGNIT TEMP 874F;HEAVIER THAN AIR
(VAPOR DENSITY 1.5) MAY TRAVEL A
CONSIDERABLE DISTANCE TO AN IGNITION
SOURCE AND FLASHBACK
================================================================================
SECTION V - Health Hazard Data
================================================================================
EFFECTS OF OVEREXPOSURE: POSS FREEZ BURN;MOD CONCENTRATION
W/AIR CAUSES UNCON
MEDICAL CONDITIONS PRONE
TO AGGRAVATION BY EXPOSURE:
UNK
PRIMARY ROUTE(S) OF ENTRY: INHALE
EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES:
INHALE/FRESH AIR
================================================================================

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

M AT E R I AL S AF E TY D ATA S H E E T

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

===============================================================================
SECTION VI - Reactivity Data
===============================================================================
STABILITY:
STABLE
HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION: WILL NOT OCCUR
CONDITIONS TO AVOID:
NA
INCOMPATIBLES:
NONE
DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS: NONE
===============================================================================
SECTION VII - Spill and Disposal Procedures
===============================================================================
DISPOSAL PROCEDURE:
VENT TO ATMOSPHERE IN FLAME FREE, SPARK FREE AREA OUTDOORS
OTHER PRECAUTIONS:
NONE
===============================================================================
SECTION VIII - Protective Equipment
===============================================================================
VENTILATION:
NA
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: NONE W/NORMAL USE
EYE PROTECTION:
NONE
SKIN PROTECTION:
NONE
OTHER EQUIPMENT:
NONE
HYGIENIC PRACTICES:
NONE
===============================================================================
SECTION IX - Storage and Handling Precautions
===============================================================================
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS:
TEMPS <120F IN WELL VENTED AREA AWAY FROM SPARK AND FLAME
===============================================================================
SECTION X - Transportation Data and Additional Information
===============================================================================
N/A
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------(TM) and (R) : Registered Trademarks
N/A = Not Applicable OR Not Available
The information published in this Material Safety Data Sheet has been compiled from our experience and data presented
in various technical publications. It is the user's responsibility to determine the suitability of this information for adoption
of necessary safety precautions. We reserve the right to revise
Material Safety Data Sheets periodically as new information becomes available.
Copyright by Manufacturer
LICENSE GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY
by OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

EXPOSURE to the chemical

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

Acute
Short term period between exposure and onset of
symptoms
Chronic
Long time period between exposure to an agent and the
onset of symptoms
Unit of concentration;
ppm - parts per million
mg/m3 -milligrams per cubic meter
Mppcf -millions or a particle per cubic foot
f/cc - fibers per cubic centimeter
Exposure limits;
TWA -takes into account variable exposure through a
full shift, 8 hour work day
STEL - limit of exposure for a short period, 15 mins
CEILING - absolute maximum level of exposure

Standard used for chemical threshold limits will be


determined by;
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health)
ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)
Examples of threshold limits value
Chlorine

0.5

Formaldehyde

Carbon Monoxide

25

Turpentine

100

Methyl Alcohol

200

Acetone

1000

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

TLV-TWA (ppm)

Important features
SYNONIMS

PEL
(ppm)

PHY. DESC.

INCOMP.

Ammonia

Ammonia
anhydrous

50

Colourless
liquid

Strong
oxidizers, gold,
halogens

Eye : wash immed.


Skin : water flush
Breath : art. resp.

Benzene

Coal tar, naphta,


phenyl hydride

Colourless
liquid

Strong
oxidizers,
chlorine
bromine

Eye : wash immed.


Skin : soap wash
Breath : art. resp.
Swallow : no vomit

Chloroform

Trichloromethane

50

Colourless
liquid

Active metals,
caustic soda

Eye : wash immed.


Skin : soap wash

Potassium
cyanide
Sodium cyanide

White solid

Strong
oxidizers
Such as nitrates
chlorates, acids
acid salts

Eye : wash immed.


Skin : soap wash
Breath : art. resp.
Swallow : water vomit

Oil of vitriol

Dark brown,
odorless

Organics,
chlorates
carbides

Eye : irr. immed


Skin : water flush
Breath : art. resp.
Swallow : water vomit

Phenyl methane
methyl benzene

200

Colourless
liquid

Strong
oxidizers

Eye : irr. immed.


Skin : soap wash
Breath : art. resp.
Swallow : no vomit

Cyanide

Sulfuric acid

Toluene

FIRST AID

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

CHEMICAL
NAME

PROTECTION from chemicals


Chemical can affect health in many ways & commonly
identified by inhalation, absorption & ingestion
Entry

Method of prevention

Inhalation

mouth, nose

Ventilation, hoods, equipment

Absorption

skin

Protective clothing

Ingestion

mouth, stomach Rules on eating, smoking etc

The best practice;


Get a copy of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
and learn all about the properties of the chemical.
Has is got a UN number, if so classified as dangerous.
Then look for the hazard warnings, hazard symbols,
risk and safety phrases.
Always follow instruction.
Dont be over confident!

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

Type

Read the container label and MSDS before starting a job


Keep your work area CLEAN
Use protective clothing and equipment
Follow safety rules
Use approved and labeled containers for storing and
transporting hazardous materials
Follow company instructions when removing hazardous
materials from containers
Make sure there is enough ventilation explosive
materials away from heat
Check that containers and hoses are in good working
condition
Take safety training seriously
Store chemicals properly. Keep chemicals that may
react with each other separate. Check the MSDS

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

DO

DONT leave containers open when not in use.


DONT siphon by mouth.
DONT depend on a funny smell to detect hazardous
gases in the air some are odoriess.
DONT mix a chemical with another substance even
water unless you are instructed to. Even then, follow
instructions
DONT breathe gases produced from chemical reactions.
DONT pour water into acid.
DONT smoke, eat, or drink around hazardous
substances.
DONT store hazardous chemicals next to each other
without checking the MSDS for possible reactions.
DONT wear contact lenses around toxic vapors.
DONT cut corners on hazardous substances handling
procedures.

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

DONT

Chemicals safety symbols/signs


Poisonous
The poison symbol is self-explanatory. Whereas most chemicals
are fairly dangerous if ingested or inhaled, many of these are
dangerous even on contact.

Corrosive
Will destroy or irreversibly damage another substance with
which it comes in contact. The main hazards include damage to
eyes, skin and tissue under the skin, but inhalation or ingestion
are also very risky. Avoid contact, and bear in mind that these
can (under some ciurcumstances) rust chemical cupboards.

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

Flammable or extremely flammable


Chemicals to be stored in flame-resistant cupboards. Volatile
solvents can be a particular problem as they are prone to spread
around from unsealed containers. This also covers pyrophoric
materials (that catch fire spontaneously on exposure to air).

Oxidising chemical
Oxidising chemicals are materials that spontaneously evolve
oxygen at room temperature or with slight heating, or that
promote combustion. To be kept away from flammable
chemicals at all costs!
Environmental hazard
Relatively rare with laboratory chemicals (most of which pose
some environmental hazard if not got rid of correctly), these
require particular care to be taken on disposal.

Explosive
Again, fairly self-explanatory, though fairly seldom seen in the
average lab. Bear in mind that noise and movement can also
trigger explosion (not just sparks/flames!).

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

Irritant or HarmfulThis symbol covers a wide range of


(sometimes relatively minor) hazards - with precautions such as
avoid contact with the skin, do not breathe, etc. - best to refer to
relevant data sheet for details.

Mohd Zaidi Sidek,2004

THE END