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When selecting transformer

protective relaying schemes, it
is important to recognize the
transformer failure

Transformer Through-Fault

Limitation of Fault energy

injected into
a distribution transformer limited by current

limiting fuses.
larger transformers limited by the impedance
Transformer differential relays and
transformer sudden pressure relays are used
to quickly detect and isolate the failed
Backup time overcurrent relays are used to
protect against faults that are not cleared
properly on circuits that are connected to the
transformer secondary.

Selection Criteria
The suggested criteria for the selection of protection relays or
schemes are:
Proven experience for a minimum period of three years
Relays built to IEEE switchgear standards or equivalent IEC
Relays tested to IEEE C37.90, C37.90.1, C37.90.2 or to IEC
Where possible, microprocessor-based relays with features
such as self checking, self-diagnostics, RMS sensing,
metering, event logging, wave capture, disturbance
recording, and with a communications port for data recovery
and setting
Relays that perform satisfactorily in the presence of
harmonics and electromagnetic (EMI) and radio frequency
(RFI) interferences
Redundancy requirements for generators, large motors, and
Availability of application literature and technical support

Necessary Steps to Carry Out RelaySetting and TimeCurrent Coordination

Prepare one (single)-line diagram. Record the
data related to the relays, circuit breakers,
fuses, current and voltage transformers, and
operating equipment.
Add type and rating of all protective devices
(instrument transformers, relays, fuses, etc.).
Record the rating of major equipment,
including transformers, rotating machines,
feeders, etc., that influence short-circuit flow.
Perform a series of short-circuit studies to
determine the maximum and minimum faultcurrent levels.

Ascertain the maximum load currents that will

exist under normal and emergency operating

conditions. The minimum and maximum shortcircuit currents determine the lower and upper
boundaries of current selectivity within which
the circuit protective devices must operate,
while the maximum load current defines the
conditions under which the current-operated
protections must not operate.
Review the applicable electrical code and
equipment standards.
Obtain protective-device timecurrent
characteristics curves and equipmentcapability or thermal-limit curves.
Define the time- and magnitude-setting
margins to be used in the study.

For setting transformer protective relays

1. MVA rating of the transformer and of each winding

2. Number and connection of windings
3. Voltage rating of each winding
4. Transformer turns ratio
5. Presence of no-load tap changers
6. Presence of load tap changers
7. Full load current of each winding at each tap value
8. Ground bank action
9. Magnetizing inrush current
10. CT ratios and connections
11. CT saturation for external faults
12. Winding impedance
13. Overload capability
14. Short-circuit withstand capability
15. Need for redundant protective relaying

Differential relays are the

usual form of fault protection

for transformers rated 25 MVA
or more 138 KV and greater
(69 KV)


transformers rated at 69 KV and below when
long fault clearing times (seconds) are
Fuses that are not current limiting are not
recommended for transformer protection
Sudden pressure relays are used to complement
differential relays for internal failures in oil-filled
Modern sudden pressure relays provide effective
transformer protection


Differential protection of a Delta-Wye transformer

a.Consider, for example, a 75-MVA, 230-69-

KV transformer with a 12-KV tertiary

winding that is used for station service
(100 KVA).
b.a two-input differential relay is a good
c.230-69-KV transformers Z= 15% to 20%.

inrush current 5 to 6.5 times full load current.

d.69-12-KV transformers Z= 7% to 12%. inrush
current could be 8 to 15 times full load current.

Differential relays see inrush

current as internal transformer
a. Utilize a relay with reduced sensitivity to the

b. This can be accomplished by specifying a relay
with a higher pickup and some small time delay
(six to 12 cycles) to override high initial peaks.
c. Utilize
a harmonic restraint or harmonic
supervisory unit in conjunction with the
differential relays
d. More modern, microprocessor-based relays can
record a transformers inrush signature and use
that waveform to decide whether to restrain or
enable tripping.

230-69-KV transformer

During winter emergency

conditions, this transformer will

be loaded to 175% of its nominal
rating for up to 2 hours.

Transformer differential relay characteristic

1. Current input taps can be varied from 1.0

amp to 10 amps in 0.1-amp increments.

2. Minimum and maximum relay operate

current is 0.5, 10 amps.

Step 1
Determine maximum load current.

The winter, 2-hour, emergency

rating of this transformer is 175% of

230 KV leads: 396 A (@ 218.5 KV)

175% = 693 A
69 KV leads: 1394 A (@ 62.1 KV)
175% = 2440 A

Step 2
CT connections delta
Relay current will be 3 greater than
the current in the transformer leads.
Maximum current to relay, 230-KV
= 693 A x3 = 1200 A
Maximum current to relay, 69-KV

= 2440 A x3 = 4225 A

Step 3
a. Select CT ratios so that the relays

current capability, 10 amps, is not

b. 230 KV CTs: 1200 A 600/5 = 10.0
A. Use 600/5 A CTs on high voltage
c. 69 KV CTs: 4225 A 2000/5 = 10.56
d. 4225 A 2500/5 = 8.45 A. Use
2500/5 A CTs on low voltage side

Step 4
a. Select relay taps at transformer full

load current.
b. 230 KV 376 A 376 A 3 600/5
= 5.427 A
c. 69 KV 1255 A 1255 A 3
2500/5 = 4.347 A
d. Use relay taps of 5.4 amps for 230KV and 4.3 amps for 69-KV relay

Step 5
a. Select

percent restraint.
Minimum operate current is 0.5
b. Check current seen by the
differential relay
c. maximum high-voltage tap and
the minimum low-voltage tap.
d. minimum high-voltage tap and
the maximum low-voltage tap.

5.4 CT
230 kV

4.3 CT
68 kV

Transformer differential relay characteristic

The maximum difference in transformer turns

ratio is 15%, the difference in current inputs

to the relay can be 16.6%. and 20% restraint
will be required.
If the secondary of the transformer was

open, and an internal fault occurred, the

relay would actuate at 0.5 relay amps for a
single phase-to ground fault in the
transformer tank

600/5 x (0.5 amp /3) = 35

35 amp = 14 MVA at 230 KV


Assume the a harmonic restraint-type

transformer differential relay and

the harmonic restraint-unit setting is

specified by the relay manufacturer.

Ground Differential Scheme

Transformer External
Fault Protection
flow of current through each
transformer lead
For Y-Y or - transformers, current

flowing in primary leads is inversely

proportional to current flowing in
secondary leads via the voltage
ratio shown on the transformer

For phase-to-phase faults on the

secondary of -Y transformers,
phase to- phase fault current flowing in
secondary leads is 0.866 of the three
phase value,

transformer, phase-to-phase fault

-Y transformer, phase-toground fault

Typical Settings of
Protective Devices for
Power Transformers

Minimum Fuse Rating

Power fuse: 140% of the transformer selfcooled rating
Current-limiting fuse: 150% of the transformer
self-cooled rating
Fuse timecurrent: below the transformer
short-circuit withstand curve (SCW) and above
the magnetizing inrush current
Magnetizing inrush current: points for
coordination are 10 to 12 P.U. at 0.1 s and 25
P.U. at 0.01 s