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POWER SYSTEM

FAULTS

POWER SYSTEM FAULTS

Power substations as a target of study consists of some


elements like Transmission Lines, Bus Bars, Power
Transformers, Outgoing Feeders, and Bus Couplers.
Regardless of the design and the systematic preventive
maintenance procedures instituted, failures due to
abnormal or fault conditions do occur
Fault are intolerable power conditions (other than
steady-state or rated ones) to which the power system or
requirement are subjected.

General causes of power system


faults

1- Fault Current
Healthy insulation in the equipment is subjected to either transient
over voltages of small time duration due to switching and lightning
strokes, direct or indirect. Failure of insulation may be happened,
resulting in very high fault current. This current may be
more than 10 times the rated or nominal current of the equipment.
2- Insulation Aging
Aging of power equipments may cause breakdown of its insulation
even at normal power frequency voltage.

General cause of power system


faults (contd)

3- External Causes
External object such as bird, kite, or tree branch are
considered as external cause of fault. These objects
may span one conductor and ground causing single
line to ground fault (phase-earth) or span two
conductors causing phase-phase fault

Fault Effects

The fault must be cleared as fast as possible. Many


equipments may be destroyed if the fault is not cleared
rapidly. The dangerous of the faults depends on the
type of the fault, as example the three phase short
circuit is the most dangerous fault because the short
circuit current is maximum. Some of the effects of short
circuit current are listed here under.

Fault Effects
1- Due to overheating and the mechanical forces
developed by faults, electrical equipments such as bus
bars, generators, transformers will be damaged
2- Negative sequence current arises from
unsymmetrical faults will lead to overheating.
3- Voltage profiles may be reduced to unacceptable
limits as a result of faults. A frequency drop may lead to
instability

Fault Types
Fault can be classified due t as:
1- Permanent
2- Transient
Or due to PARTICIPATED PHASES as
1- Phase-Earth
2- Phase-Phase
3- Phase-Phase-Earth
4- Three-Phase or Three-Phase-Earth

Broad categorization of Fault Types


Fault may be categorized broadly into 2 types:
Symmetrical or balanced faults
Asymmetrical or unbalanced faults

Broad categorization of Fault Types


Balanced (3) Faults
RARE :- Majority of Faults are Unbalanced
CAUSES :1. System Energisation with Maintenance Earthing
Clamps still connected.
2. 1 Faults developing into 3 Faults
Line - Line - Line (5%)
3 Phase; Ia + Ib + Ic = 0 and Va = Vb = Vc

Broad categorization of Fault Types


3 FAULTS MAY BE REPRESENTED BY 1 CIRCUIT
This is valid because system is maintained in a BALANCED state
during the fault
Voltages equal and 120 apart
Currents equal and 120 apart
Power System Plant Symmetrical
Phase Impedances Equal
Mutual Impedances Equal
Shunt Admittances Equal

Broad categorization of Fault Types


Unbalanced Faults
Unbalanced Faults may be classified into
SHUNT FAULTS and SERIES FAULTS.
SHUNT FAULTS:
Line to Ground
Line to Line
Line to Line to Ground

Broad categorization of Fault Types

Broad categorization of Fault Types

Causes :
1) Insulation Breakdown
2) Lightning Discharges and other Overvoltages
3) Mechanical Damage
During unbalanced faults, symmetry of system Is lost
therefore single phase representation is no longer Valid

Broad categorization of Fault Types


SERIES FAULTS OR OPEN CIRCUIT:
Single Phase Open Circuit
Double Phase Open Circuit
Causes :
1) Broken Conductor
2) Operation of Fuses
3) Maloperation of Single Phase Circuit Breakers

Characteristics
of Faults
A fault is characterized by:

Magnitude of the fault current


Power factor or phase angle of the fault current
The magnitude of the fault current depends upon:
The capacity and magnitude of the generating sources
feeding into the fault

Characteristics of Faults

The system impedance up to the point of fault or


source impedance behind the fault
Type of fault
System grounding, number and size of overhead
ground wires
Fault resistance or resistance of the earth in the case
of ground faults and arc
resistance in the case of both phase and ground faults

Characteristics of Faults

The phase angle of the fault current is dependent upon:


For phase faults: - the nature of the source and
connected circuits up to the fault location and
For ground faults: - the type of system grounding in
addition to above.

Necessity for fault calculations


Fault calculations are done primarily for the following:
To determine the maximum fault current at the point of
installation of a circuit breaker and to choose a
standard rating for the circuit breaker (rupturing)
To select the type of circuit breaker depending upon
the nature and type of fault.

Necessity for fault calculations

To determine the type of protection scheme to be


deployed.
To select the appropriate relay settings of the
protection scheme.
To co-ordinate the relay settings in the overall
protection scheme of the system

Necessity for fault calculations


The calculation is not only limited to present system
requirements but also meet:
The future expansion schemes of the system such as
addition of new generating units
Construction of new transmission lines to evacuate
power.
Construction of new lines to meet the load growth and
or Construction of interconnecting tie lines

Necessity for fault calculations

Basically, there are two approaches to fault


calculations. These are:
(a) Actual reactance or impedance method
(b) Percentage reactance or impedance method or per
unit (p.u) reactance or impedance method.
Machine and Transformer impedance or reactance are
always noted in percentage values on the nameplate.
Hence the latter method is considered for our
calculation.

Per Unit System


Power system quantities such as voltage,

current and impedance are often


expressed in per unit or percent of
specified values.
Per unit quantities are calculated as:

Actual Value
Per Unit Value
Base Value

Per Unit System


Per Unit Values
S pu

S
S base

I pu

I
I base

Vpu

Z pu

Vbase

Z
Z base

Conversion of Per Unit Values


Z pu

Z
Z base

Sbase
2 Z
Vbase

Z Z base Z pu

2
Vbase

Z pu
S base

Per Unit System


Usually, the nominal apparent power (S) and

nominal voltage (V) are taken as the base


values for power (Sbase) and voltage (Vbase).
The base values for the current (Ibase) and
impedance (Zbase) can be calculated based on
the first two base values.

Z actual
Z%
100%
Z base
The percent impedance
e.g. in a synchronous generator with
13.8 kV as its nominal voltage, instead of
saying the voltage is 12.42 kV, we say
the voltage is 0.9 p.u.

Simplified:
Concerns about using phase or line voltages are
removed in the per-unit system
Actual values of R, XC and XL for lines, cables, and
other electrical equipment typically phase values.
It is convenient to work in terms of base VA (base
volt-amperes)

Usually, the 3-phase SB or MVAB and line-to-line VB or kVB


are selected
IB and ZB dependent on SB and VB

S B 3VB I B
SB
IB
,
3VB

VB 3I B Z B
VB / 3 VB
ZB

IB
SB

The impedance of individual generators &


transformer, are generally in terms of
percent/per unit based on their own ratings.
Impedance of transmission line in ohmic
value
When pieces of equipment with various
different ratings are connected to a system,
it is necessary to convert their impedances
to a per unit value expressed on the same
base.

Change of Base
old
Z pu
be the per unit impedance on the power base Sold
B
old
B

& voltage base V

old
Z pu

Z S Bold
old
Z
2
old
V

ZB
B

new
Z pu
be the new per unit impedance on the new power base Snew
B

& new voltage base VBnew


new
Z pu

Z S Bnew
new
Z
2
new
V

ZB
B

Change of Base
From (1) and (2), the relationship between the old
and the new per unit value

new
pu

old
pu

new
B
old
B

V

V

If the voltage base are the same,


new
Z pu

new

S
old
B
Z pu old
SB

old
B
new
B

Z pu ( new) Z pu ( old ) *

MVAbase ( new)
MVAbase ( old )

2
KVbase
( old )

KV

2
base ( new )

Other base quantites :-

(kVb )2
BaseImpedance Zb
in Ohms
MVAb
BaseCurrent

MVAb
in kA
3 . kVb

Per Unit Values =

Actual Value
Base Value

MVA a
Per Unit MVA MVAp.u.
MVAb
KVa
Per Unit Voltage kVp.u.
KVb
Per Unit Impedance Zp.u.
Per Unit Current p.u.

a
b

Za
MVAb
Za .
Zb
(kVb )2

If ZT = 5%
with Secondary S/C
5% V (RATED) produces I (RATED) in Secondary.
V (RATED) produces 100 x I (RATED)
5
= 20 x I (RATED)
If Source Impedance ZS = 0
Fault current = 20 x I (RATED)
Fault Power = 20 x kVA (RATED)
ZT is based on I (RATED) & V (RATED)
i.e. Based on MVA (RATED) & kV (RATED)
is same value viewed from either side of transformer.

(1)

To calculate the p.u impedance and %


impedance of a transmission line at 100 MVA
base Line voltage
330 KV
Line length
200 Kms
Line resistance /Km
= 0.06 ohms/Km
Line reactance /Km
= 0.4 ohms/Km

Z = R + jX
For the 200kms line length
Z =
200 (0.06 + j 0.4)
=
12 + j 80
|Z| = [(12) 2 + (80) 2]
= 80.895 ohms

Zp.u

%Z

=
=
=

Zx

MVA base
(KV) 2 base

80.895 x 100
(330) 2
0.0743 p.u
0.074 x 100
7.43

(2)To calculate the p.u impedance to a 100 MVA


base
Given four generators; 90MVA, 11KV of 15%
impedance each connected to step up
transformers of 90MVA 11KV/330KV of 14%
impedance. Calculate the fault current at F.

Assumed MVA = 100


%Z generators
= 15 on 90 MVA base
or Zg p.u
= 0.15 on 90 MVA base
Zg p.u on 100 MVA base will be:
(Zg p.u) base2
=
(Zg p.u) base1 x MVA base2
MVA base1
(Zg p.u) 100 =
0.15 x 100
90
=
0.167

%Z transformers
= 14 on 90 MVA base
or Zt p.u
= 0.14 on 90 MVA base
Zt p.u on 100 MVA base will be:
(Zt p.u) base2
=
(Zt p.u) base1 x MVA base2
MVA base1
(Zt p.u) 100
= 0.14 x 100
90
= 0.156

The system reduces as follows

Ztotal

= 0.323
4
= 0.08075

Total p.u impedance at F = 0.08075 = Ztotal


Fault MVA at F =
=
=

Base MVA
Ztotal
100
MVA
0.08075
1238.4 MVA

Current at F =

Fault MVA x (10) 3 u


3 x system voltage (KV)

at point of

fault

=
=

1238.4 x (10) 3
3 x 330
2166.638Amps

MORE EXAMPLES IN YOUR LECTURE BOOK,


PLEASE.