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Biodiversity conservation

Biodiversity conservation takes place via two


methods:
1.IN-SITU CONSERVATION:
(national parks , wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere
reserves, world heritage sites
2.EX-SITU CONSERVATION:
(botanical gardens ,zoological parks, gene
banks, cryopreservation)

National parks
National parks are areas of land that
protect native plants and animals and
their habitats, places of natural beauty,
historic heritage and aboriginal culture
heritage.
There are approximately 90 national
parks which occupy 4.7% of the
countrys total geographic area.

IUCN(international union for conservation


of nature)is an international organization
which approves any national park.
The first national park was yellow stone
national park in US.
The first national park in India was Jim
corbett national park.
The first national park which meets the
standards and definition of IUCN was:
Northeast Greenland national
park,denmark

Features :
minimum size of 1000 hectares
Budget and staff sufficient to provide
sufficient and effective protection
Prohibition of exploitation of natural
resources by activities like sport,
fishing etc.

AIM OF NATIONAL PARK:


The national park aims to conserve a
comprehensive, adequate, and representative
system of relatively large natural areas,
which together reflect the full range of
landscape, diversity of ecosystems and
biodiversity of the state.
Modified ecosystems such as urban areas and
agriculture zones are found adjacent to
national parks. They provide homes for native
animals and the vegetation corridors.

Conservation of several ecosystems


Conservation of biodiversity which is
present in that area
Conservation of endangered species
Preservation of natural beauty
preservation of cultural heritage
Preservation of aboriginal and their
heritage.(checkpoint)

Case study of madhav national park:


The land on which the Madhav National Park
was established, provided livelihoods for
about 25 Sahariya tribes. They lived in a
village named Lohra Kahr . This is a village,
that doesnt exist anymore as everything
belonging of the tribal such as their houses,
their land, their fields was incorporated into
the National Park.

List of national parks in


India
and the species conserved

Wildlife sanctuary
Meaning of sanctuary: a safe place
A wildlife sanctuary is a naturally occuring
sanctuary that provides protection for species
from hunting, predation or competition
It is a protected area, a geographical
territory within which wildlife is protected
It is created by government legislation,
publicly or privately owned
It preserves the animals that are endangered.

List of wildlife sanctuaries in


India
and the species conserved

Difference b/w national park and


sanctuary:
national park
Conservation of both
plants and animals
More focused on
conservation of habitat
0.04-3162 km square area
Defined boundaries can
not be changed
Despite tourist zone, no
interference of humans is
allowed

Wildlife sanctuary
Conservation specifically
of animals
Conservation of
particular species.
0.61-7818km square area
Boundaries can be
changed
Limited interference of
humans

Biosphere reserves
A biosphere reserve is still a larger area
then a national park and wildlife sanctuary
It protects large areas of natural habitat
and often include one or more national
parks
The aim is to protect not only flora and
fauna of the region but also to protect
the human communities who inhabit these
regions and their ways of life.

Aim of biosphere reserve:


to protect the biological and cultural diversity
of a region while promoting sustainable
economic development.
It is a place of cooperation, education and
experimentation, where scientists and
managers can share research data to better
understand man's impact on nature, and where
local communities, environmental groups, and
economic interests can work collaboratively on
conservation and development issues.

Zones of biosphere reserve

World heritage site:


AUnited Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World
Heritage Siteis a place (such as a forest,
mountain, lake,desert, monument, building,
complex, or city) that is listed by
theUNESCO as of special cultural or physical
significance.
As of 2012,962 sites are listed: 745 cultural,
188 natural, and 29 mixed properties, in 157
states.

site#145 los glaciers national park, Argentina

Mt Kenya national park,kenya

In-situ conservation
botanical gardens:
A botanical garden is a well tended area
where plants are displayed with their
botanical names written below.
It contains plant collections such as :
cacti, succulent plants, herb gardens
and greenhouses, shade houses.
Special collections: tropical plants,
alpine plants.

Visitor services at a botanical garden


might include tours, educational
displays,art exhibitions, book rooms,
open-air theatrical and musical
performances, and other entertainment.
These are run by universities and other
research organisations.
In principle, their role is to maintain
documented collections of living plants for
the purposes of scientific research,
conservation, display, and education

Gene bank
Gene banksare a type ofbiorepositorywhich
preservegenetic material.
Inplants, this could be by freezing cuts from
the plant, or stocking theseeds.
In animals, this is the freezing ofsperm
andeggsinzoological freezersuntil further
needed.
With corals, fragments are taken which are
stored in water tanks under controlled
conditions

Types of gene banks:


Seed banks: preservation of the dried
seeds of the plants at very low
temperature.(pteridophytes can be
preserved but tuber crops cant be).
Tissue banks: preservation of the buds
and meristematic cells under proper
light conditions and nutrient
medium(both seeds and seedless plants
are preserved).

Pollen bank: preservation of pollen grains of


plants.
Field gene bank: in a wide field we are
planting the crops which contains important
genes, thus we are planting the plants for
conservation of gene.
Cryo-bank: preservation of a seed or an
embryo in liquid nitrogen at -196 degree
Celsius.

Cryo preservation
Cryopreservationis a process wherecells,
wholetissues, or any other substances
susceptible to damage caused bychemical
reactivityor time are preserved by cooling to
sub-zerotemperatures.
At low enough temperatures, anyenzymaticor
chemical activity which might cause damage to
the material in question is effectively
stopped.

Whilerefrigerators, freezers and extra cold


freezers are used for many items, generally the
ultra cold of liquid nitrogen at196 C(77K;
321F)is required for successful preservation of
the more complex biological structures to virtually
stop all biological activity.
Preservation of the material for a maximum of
1000 years!!!

However, during the storage there could be


a potential damage to the sample due to
extracellular and intracellular ice formation,
or due to effect of solutions or dehydration.
This can be reduced by the use of
cryoprotectants.
Conventional cryoprotectant: ethylene glycol,
reduces ice formation during freezing. The
process of adding cryoprotectants before
cooling is known as VITRIFICATION.

Thank you