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Activity No.


Underground portion of the plant
body which serves to anchor the plant
body to the ground, absorb water and
inorganic nutrients and conduct water
and mineral nutrients.

Roots may be classified according to their origin


1. Primary root
Develop from the hypocotyls (or its lower
tip, the radicle) of the embryo.

2. Secondary root (Branch roots)

Develop as branches from the primary root
and other roots.

3. Adventitious roots
Develop directly from the stems and

Two basic types of root system:

1. Taproot system
Derives directly from the first root that
emerge from a seed that enlarges and forms a
prominent central root that is called the taproot.
(e.g. dicots)

2. Fibrous root system

Kind of root system in which both primary
and lateral roots are finely divided and have
approximately equal diameters.

Root cap tissue at the

very tip of the root axis.
Meristematic region
region of actively dividing
cells, cells divide and
increase in number.
Region of elongation
root hair zone, cells enlarge
and begin to differentiate.
Region of maturation
region where primary
tissues are completely

Dicot root (c.s)

Monocot root (c.s)

Epidermis outer layer of cells, it protects

the inner tissues.
Cortex cells between the epidermis and
central part of the root.
Central cylinder or stele the cells
through the center.
Vascular tissues conducting tissues
composed of the xylem and phloem.
Pericycle a tissue bound externally by
the endodermis and intenally by the phloem.

1. Fleshy or enlarged roots are specialized to
store food and other materials.
According to shape:

Conical example : Carrot (Daucus carota L.)

Fusiform example : Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

Tubercular example : Sweet potato (Ipomoea

batatas Lamk.)

Fasciculated example : Cassava (Manihot

esculenta Crantz.)

Napiform example : Turnip (Pachyrhizus erosus

(L.) Urb.)

2. Prop roots add support to the structure of

the plant.

Ex. Corn Zea mays L.

Ex. Pandan Pandanus

amaryllifolius Roxb.

3. Photosynthetic roots/ Green roots

specialized to manufacture food for they have
chlorophyll. (ex. Orchids)

4. Clinging root roots that cling to walls and

tree trunks for support.
Ex. Cadena de amor (Coral vine)
Antigonon leptopus Hook and

5. Pneumatophore may assist in getting

oxygen to the submerged roots. (ex. Mangroves)

6. Contractile roots grow into the soil and

contract thereby pulling the corm or bulb into the

7. Clustered fleshy root for water storage

Ex. Lawiswis kawayan Chlorophytum elatum

Largest Tree Root System

Genetically identical aspen trees (Populus
tremuloides) grow in large stands throughout cooler
regions of North America. The individual trees within
these stands are interconnected by a shared root system
and it is that root system that ranks as the largest on the
planet. New aspen trees grow as root sprouts that grow
off of a parent tree. The largest known aspen grove,
nicknamed Pando, is located in Utah and covers 106
acres and is estimated to weigh 6000 tonnes.


100php for Symposium on September 14

September 11, 2012 (Tuesday)
Quiz on Digestion and Absorption
Discussion on Translocation
Bring index card and 2 bond papers
September 13, 2012 (Thursday)
Quiz on Translocation
Practical Exam (50 points)
Submission of Lab reports
Late submission of Lab Reports will not be accepted!

September 18, 2012 (Tuesday)

Second Term Practical Exam

COVERAGE of Practical and Term Exam as well
as the Lab Reports to be submitted.

Animal Tissues (Page 86-91)

Plant Tissues (Page 46-49)
Protection (Page 98-99)
Digestion and Nutrition (Page 116-118)
Absorption (Page 54-56)
Translocation (Page 60-61)