Capacitors have been very commonly employed

to provide reactive power compensation to distribution systems.
Capacitors are used to minimize the power and

energy losses and to enhance the voltage profile.
We represent an optimization method which uses

fuzzy reasoning and genetic algorithm for capacitor placement.

Fuzzy reasoning finds the sensitive nodes. Three membership functions are defined for real

power loss, reactive power loss and voltage deviation, respectively.
A high power loss section of the feeder is given a

low membership value, while a low power loss section of the feeder is given a high membership value.
The voltage deviation can be similarly defined, a bus

with high voltage deviation is given a low membership values.

The alpha-cut operation of a fizzy set is used to obtain the

candidate location for capacitor installation.
The genetic algorithm determines the capacitor size and

type for installation.
In genetic algorithm application, the fitness function for

each string of the population is defined as the objective function of the system model, which is composed of the peak power losses and cost of capacitors added.

The solution procedures start off with performing a load flow

study to calculate the bus voltages and line losses.
Determination of candidate locations for capacitors sitting is

performed by way of a membership function approach.
If a node whose voltage is not kept within its limits, the solution is

discarded; otherwise the solution is accepted.
Subsequently the peak power loss and overall annual savings are

computed and compared with that of the previous selection.
 The procedures are repeated until an optimal capacitor

allocation scheme is achieved.


The power capacitor can be considered to be a VAR-GEN (reactive power Source), since it actually supplies needed-magnetizing current requirements for inductive loads. The fundamental function of power capacitor is to provide needed reactive power compensation.

Power factor correction Feeder-Loss Reduction Release of System capacity Voltage- Stabilization/Regulation Efficient Power Utilization Power Quality Enhancement Power Harmonic Filtering

The Capacitor Location or Placement for low voltage

systems determines capacitor type, size, location and control schemes.
Optimal capacitor placement is generally a hard

combinatorial .optimization problem that can be formulated as a nonlinear/Search Minimization problem.

Almost all the methods to solve capacitor placement problems are

based on the historical data of the load models and associated cost of the energy and the cost of capacitor banks.

Cost $/Kvar for Power savings and Losses (Power losses/Energy


Historical Data and Load models are uncertain and may

change in reality.
To account for such load model and load pattern/cycles

uncertainties Soft-Computing AI Based algorithms using fuzzy sets/Neural networks/Genetic Algorithm can be utilized.

In general, capacitor placement problems can

be solved in two steps:

1.Use of load flow model and find the V,P,Q at all the buses and also the feeder losses 2.Minimize the cost function-Jo-min - subject to constraints, like practical limits of voltage and capacitor size!

Line loss evaluation

The power loss of the line section connecting buses i and i+1 may be computed as

The total power loss of the feeder, PT,Loss is given by

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy logic and rules  An example of fuzzy rules  Uncertainty revisited

Crisp Sets
• A set with a characteristic function is called crisp • Crisp sets are used to formally characterize a concept, e.g., even numbers • Crisp sets have clear cut boundaries, hence do not reflect uncertainty about membership

Fuzzy Sets
• Zadeh (1965) introduced “Fuzzy Sets” where he replaced the characteristic function with membership • χ S: U → {0,1} is replaced by mS: U → [0,1] • Membership is a generalization of characteristic function and gives a “degree of membership” • Successful applications in control theoretic settings (appliances, gearbox)

Example: Let S be the set of people of normal Height • Normality is not a crisp concept

• Support in U SupportU(S) = {x ∈ U | mS(x) > 0} • Containment A ⊆ B if and only if mA(x) ≤ mB(x) for all x ∈ U

• Union mA∪B(x) = max(mA(x), mB(x)) • Intersection mA∩B(x) = min(mA(x), mB(x)) • Complementation mU-A(x) = 1 -mA(x) • Note that other definitions exist too

mA∪B(x)? mA∩B(x)? mU-A(x)=1 -mA(x)?

The fuzzy relation R between Sets X and Y is a fuzzy set in the Cartesian product X×Y

• mR: X × Y → [0,1] gives the degree to which x and y are related to each other in R.

Two fuzzy relations R in X × Y and S in Y ×Z can be composed into R°S in X × Z as mR°S(x,z) = maxy∈Y[min[mR(x,y), mS(y,z)]]

• “Probability of cold weather tomorrow” • U = {x1, x2, …, xn}, p is a probability density, A is a fuzzy set (event) in U P( A) =Σi=1 to n mA ( xi) p( xi)

• Finding a single representative for a fuzzy set A in U = {xi|i in {1,…n}} • Max: x in U such that mA(x) is maximal • Center of gravity:

• A is a fuzzy set in U • Aa = {x | mA(x)≥a } is the a-cut of A in U • Strong a-cut is Aa = {x | mA (x)> a } • Alpha cuts are crisp sets

• Different views – Foundation for reasoning based on uncertain statements – Foundation for reasoning based on uncertain statements where fuzzy set theoretic tools are used (original Zadeh) – As a multi valued logic with operations chosen in a special way that has some fuzzy interpretation

• Generalization of proposition over a set • Let Xs:U → {0,1} denote the characteristic function of the set S • Recall that in “crisp” logic I(p(x)) = p(x) = XT(p)(x) where p is a proposition and T(p) is the corresponding truth set

We extend the proposition p:U → {0,1} to be a fuzzy membership p:U → [0,1] • The fuzzy set associated with p corresponds to the truth set T(p) and p(x) is the degree of truth of p for x • We extend the interpretation of logical formulae analogously to the crisp case

• Basic operations: –I(p(x)) = p(x) – I(α ∨ β) = max (I(α),I(β)) – I(α ^ β) = min (I(α),I(β)) – I(~ α) = 1 – I(α)

• “If x in A then y in B” is a relation R between A and B • Two model types – Implicative: (x in A → y in B) is an upper bound – Conjunctive: (x in A ^ y in B) is a lower bound

• Fuzzy sets can be said to model inherent vagueness Bob is "tall" -vagueness in the meaning of "tall", not in Bob's height

Mathematical Programming Network Analysis Branch & Bound Genetic Algorithm Simulated Annealing Tabu Search

Genetic Algorithms (GA) OVERVIEW
A class of probabilistic optimization algorithms Inspired by the biological evolution process Uses concepts of “Natural Selection” and “Genetic Inheritance”

(Darwin 1859) Originally developed by John Holland (1975) Genetic Algorithms follow the idea of SURVIVAL OF THE FITTESTBetter and better solutions evolve from previous generations until a near optimal solution is obtained.


GA overview (cont)
Particularly well suited for hard problems where

little is known about the underlying search space Widely-used in business, science and engineering Based on Darwinian’s principle of evolution


A process called natural selection, ‘selects’ individuals best adapted to the environment. Those fittest survive longest. Characteristics, encoded in genes are transmitted to offspring and tend to propagate into new generations. In sexual reproduction, the chromosomes of offspring are a mix of their parents. An offspring’s characteristics are partially inherited from parents and partly the result of new genes created during the reproduction process.

Chromosome often encoded as a bit string, represent a

candidate solution in the population.
Genes are either single bits or short blocks of adjacent

bits that encode a particular element of the candidate solution.
Alleles are 0’s or 1’s in a bit string.

Individual Population Fitness Chromosome Gene Crossover and Mutation Natural Selection

Solution to a problem Set of solutions Quality of a solution Encoding for a solution Part of the encoding of a solution Search operators Reuse of good (sub-) solutions

Genetic Algorithm
 Based on Darwinian Paradigm
Reproduction Competition



 Intrinsically a robust search and optimization mechanism

A Population of chromosomes. A Fitness Function. Genetic Operators - Selection - Crossover - Mutation

Selection : This operator selects chromosomes in the population for reproduction.The fitter the chromosome, the more times it is likely to be selected to reproduce. Crossover : This operator randomly chooses a locus and exchanges the subsequences before and after that locus between two chromosomes to create two offspring. Mutation :This operator randomly flips some of the bits in a chromosome.

Alternate solutions are too slow or overly

complicated Need an exploratory tool to examine new approaches Problem is similar to one that has already been successfully solved by using a GA Want to hybridize with an existing solution Benefits of the GA technology meet key problem requirements

Multiple solutions can be obtained without extra effort. GAs are implicitly parallel and can be implemented on parallel machines. GAs are quite successful in locating the regions containing optimal solution(s), if not the optimum solution itself. GAs can solve problems involving large time domain.

GAs work with a population of candidate solutions and not a single point. GAs work with coding of parameters instead of parameters themselves. GAs do not require any domain knowledge (gradient information etc.) and just use the payoff information. GAs are stochastic methods, i.e., use probabilistic transition rules and not deterministic ones. Applies to a variety of problems and not works in a restricted domain.

Initialise and evaluate a population While (termination condition not met) do
o Select sub-population based on fitness o Produce offspring of the population using crossover o Mutate offspring stochastically o Select survivors based on fitness

Flow Diagram of the Genetic Algorithm Process
Describe Problem Generate Initial Solutions

Step 1

Test: is initial solution good enough? No



Step 2

Select parents to reproduce

Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

Apply crossover process and create a set of offspring Apply random mutation

The total power loss is given by

Considering shunt capacitors, there exists a finite number of standard sizes which are integer multiples of the smallest size Qc . Besides, the cost per kvar varies from one size to another. In general, larger-size capacitors have lower unit prices than smaller ones have. The available capacitor size is usually limited to

The available capacitor size is usually limited to
where L is an integer. Therefore for each installation location, we have L capacitor sizes to choose from.

Following the description aforementioned, the total annual cost function due to capacitor placement and power loss change is written as:

where CL is the equivalent annual cost per unit of and j=1,2,...,J are the indices of buses selected for compensation. The objective is to minimize the cost function subject to

where Vmin and Vmax are the permissible minimum and maximum bus voltages, respectively, and n is the total number of buses. The problem mentioned above is an non linear optimization problem. In this case, the objective function and constraints can be computed for each possibility. Then, the global optimum solution is simply the one which satisfies the constraints with the least cost. However, as the number of possibilities increases the computational requirements become unacceptable.


•Three membership functions are defined to enable the proposed method to apply fuzzy technique.
•The membership function Uvi for voltage of bus i(Vi,pu) is defined as

where Mv is a constant, and αγ is the level for the α-cut operation of the fuzzy set. The second membership function UPi defined for real power loss of the line section between buses i and i+l (Pi,Loss) is depicted as

where CP is a constant, and is the level for the α-cut operation of the fuzzy set. The third membership function UQi defined for the reactive power loss of the line section between buses i and i+1(Q,,Loss) is depicted

where CQ is a constant, and -cut operation of the fuzzy set.

is the level for the

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Membership funtion editor

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1.Optimize the cost using GA in MATLAB

The repeated simulation results could be used to develop a Model using any artificial intelligence technique which can accurately predict the location and size of capacitor for any load conditions which gives a great promise for practical implementation of the proposed technique.


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