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ME 215


Content of the course

1)Engineering materials
2)Desing engineering and selection of
3)Properties in tension and compression
4)Properties in bending and shear
5)Hardness and hardness testing
6)Fatique properties
7)Fracture and impact

Grading Policy:
2 midterm exams
5-6 lab tests + quzzes + a project (optionalweighing as one mdterm)
1 final exam
Reference book: Properties of materials for
desing, by Prof.Dr Alp ESIN
Metal meslek bilgisi (MEB Yaynlar)
Malzeme bilgisi, by MEHMET YKSEL (MMO
Mekanik tasarmda elik ve zellikleri, by Cahit
TRE ((MMO Yaynlar)

Materials used in engineering applications
cover a range from simple daily uses like
pencils and spoons to most complex and
extreme cases like space shuttles and bio
medical uses.
Engineering materials used in applications
from simple daily life to extreme ones are
divided into following sub-classes:

Engineering materials

A) Metals (and Alloys)

A.1) Ferrous
(iron based)

A.2) Non-ferrous
(iron free)

B) Non-metals


B.2) Artificials

Metals are used to be the main engineering materials

prefferred by mechanical engineers for centruies.
The main reasons for this were their abundancy in
nature, easy processing and also their relatively more
load carrying capacity.
Artificial materials, however, took place in many
applications because of their advantages like better
insulation, heat resistance and weight saving.
Therefore, many different materials were found or
derived from other materials for certain advantages in
different applications.

A) Metals and Alloys

A.1) Ferrous metals (iron based)

A.2) Non-ferrous metals (iron free)

Cast iron: (%C>2)

Gray CI
White CI
Ductile CI
Malleable CI
High alloy CI

Heavy metals
Lead etc

Steel: (%C<2)
Plain Carbon steel
Alloy steel

Light metals
Beryllium etc
Refractory (high temp)
Molybdenum etc

Precious metals
Silver etc

B) Non-metals

granite etc

B.2) Artificials

Thermosets etc
Metal matrix composites
Ceramic matrix composites
Polymer matrix composites

Ferrous metals (cast iron and steel) are still the most
widely used materials in many engineering applications.
Steel, in particular, has many versions (alloys) with
different advantages for different applications.
Steel can serve in applications varying from simple
machine construction to extreme load bearing (carrying)
applications and from simple springy (elastic) deflection
applications to very high temperature resistant or
corrosion resistant applications.
Steels as one of the most important engineering
materials are divided into following sub-classes:

Steels (%C < 2)

Plain Carbon steels

Alloy Steels

with limited alloying elements

(%C < 1.5)

with modest amount of alloying


Plain Carbon steels

with limited alloying elements (%C
< 1.5)
Low carbon Steel (%C < 0.3)

Medium carbon Steel (0.3<%C < 0.6)

High carbon Steel (0.6<%C < 1.5)

Free machining carbon Steel

(with special alloys)

Alloy Steels
with modest amount of alloying elements

Tool Steel
(used for tools and dies)
Stainless Steel
(%Cr > 10.5)

High strength Steel

(weight saving)
High strength low alloy
(HSLA) Steel

Iron based super alloys


Were classified as;
1)ferrous (iron based) metals & alloys,
i.e. Steels and cast irons
2)non-ferrous metals & alloys; metals
other than iron (Fe),
i,e, Cu,Al,Zn,Pb etc and their alloys.


Iron is found in nature as iron ore which
consist of iron oxides,carbonates and
sulphides and gaunge.
Iron is obtained by reduction of iron oxides
with carbon (i.e. coke) in the blast furnace.
Limestone is usually added into the blast
furnace charge to remove gaunge
i.e. SiO2 as calcium silicate slags.

Blast furnace

The product of blast furnace is called pig iron

which is impure iron containing too much
C,Mn,P,S and Si.
Pig iron is either transformed into
cast iron containing > 2% C or
converted into steels in a secondary process,
where C is reduced to <2%.

Steels are made by the removal of excess C and
other impurities of pig iron by oxidation followed by a
deoxidation process and addition of C and alloying
elements to the required level.
Oxidation is carried out by blowing air or oxygen
through molten pig iron in either

1)Bessemer-Thomas furnace
2)Siemens-Martin (open heart furnace)
3)Basic Oxygen Furnace
4)Electric Furnace

Scrap iron is usually converted into steel in electric

arc furnaces
Steels usually contain up to 2%C,1%Mn, 0.5%Si,
0.05%S and 0.05%P

Plain carbon steels and

Alloy steels
are the two main groups of steels

1-Plain carbon steels are the ones

in which C is the significant alloying addition
and there fore they are are termed as plain
carbon steels.
They contain upto 1.5%C and also 1.65%Mn
max, 0.6%Si max, 0.6%Cu max.

Classification of plain carbon steels

Plain Carbon steels
with limited alloying elements (%C < 1.5)
Low carbon Steel (%C < 0.3)

Medium carbon Steel (0.3<%C < 0.6)

High carbon Steel (0.6<%C < 1.5)

Free machining carbon Steel

(with special alloys)

A) Low carbon steels

1)dead soft mild steels: contain <0.15%C very
soft ,easily fabricated by cold forming and
welding.used in construction where strength is not
very important.

2)mild steels: contain 0.15%-0.30%C also called

structural steels.used for structure, structure and
machine applications,structural shapes i.e. Ibeams,channels and angles etc.

B) Medium carbon steels

contain 0.3-0.6%C combined properties are
strength,thoughness and wear resistance used for
crankshaft,axles,railway wheels and gears.

C) High carbon steels

contain 0.6- 1.5%C they have low ductility and are
used for high strength steels,wire production etc.

D) Free machining carbon steels

these are specially developped for fast and
economic machining at parts.machinability of the
plain carbon steels is improved by addition of
elements such as Pb,S,P and Te,Se,Bi.


(second group of the

steels) contain modest amount of alloying
They are heat treated to improve some desired
mechanical properties.
They usually contain more than 1.65%Mn,
0.60%Si and 0.60%Cu.
They have
Through hardenable grades
Corburizing grades and
Nitriding grades


The alloying elements may have the following efects:
Form solid solution or intermetalic compounds in steel.
Alter the temperature at which phase transformations
occur steel.
Alter the solubility of C in different phases of iron
Alter the rate of transformation of austenite to its
decomposition products and likewise the rate of
reverse reaction, i.e. solution of cementite into
austenite upon heating
Decrease the softening on tempering

Nearly all alloying elements dissolve in both

ferrite and austenite and increase strength and
hardenability of the steels.
Mn,Cr,W (wolfrom),Mo,V and Ti form carbides
i.e. intermetalic compounds, therefore reduce
hardenability, refine grains, increase
Non-metalic inclusions such as oxides and
sulphides are de oxidizers and grain growth
Sulphides and nitrides increase hardness
Elemental Cu & Pb increase machinability.
Some of the alloying elements and their
effect on the alloy steels are:

Mn(1.65-2.1%) increases strength,hardenability

and corrosion resistance
Al(max 1%) promotes nitriding properties
Si(0.6-2.2%) raises the critical temperature for
heat treatment and increases resilience
Ni :increase strength,shock resistance
,corrosion resistance and heat resisatnce,lower
the critical temperature for heat treatment.
Cr :increase hardness,hardenability,wear
resistance,corrosion resistance and heat
treatment reduce resilince and promotes
formation of carbides

Mo :used in common with Mn and Cr to

increase hardenability,tensile and creep
V :increase hardenability
Ti :increase yield point & weldability.
W :increase hardness and tensile strength
C :increase hardness and tensile strength but
decrease forging and welding properties
P(max 0.03-0.05%) harmful
S(max 0.025-0.05%) harmful
P and S make steel brittle and prevent hot or
cold forming.


High alloy steels are the ones specially
produced with certain objectives by using
again ceratin elements as alloying
elements. These are:
Stainless steels
High strength steels
High strength low alloy steels and
Iron based alloys

Tool steels: these are clean,(i.e. no

inclusion), high alloy steels produced carefully
in elelctric furnaces.They usually contain
Cr,V,W,Mo or Co besides C,Mn and Si.They
are wear resistance,tough and have high hot
hardness. This type of steels are used mainly
in tools and dies.
Stainless steels: they contain minimum of
10.5%Cr. Addition of higher amount of Cr and
Ni.Further improve corrosion resistance.They
have high strength ,hardness,corrosion
resistance and abbrassion resistance.

High strength steels: these steels were

developed for specific high strength applications
and used for weight saving in constructions.
High strength low alloy (HSLA) steels:
specially developed to improve mechanical
properties and corrosion resistance while
benefitting from weight saving too.
Iron based super alloys: These are used
primarly for high temperature applications they
are cheaper than Co and Ni based super alloys.
Superalloys are used at temperatures from 540
to 1090 C. Iron based superalloys are used at
lower end of this range.

Cast iron is a four element alloy containing
iron, carbon (2 to 4%),silicon and manganese.
Some cast iron types may contain additional
alloying elements.
Cast iron contains large amount of carbon in
the form of Fe3C (cementite) and this
composition is not stable and decomposes
under certain conditions:
Fe3C 3Fe + C

According to this breakdown of cementite,

cast irons are classified as:
1) Gray cast iron
2) Ductile cast iron
3) white cast iron
4) malleable cast iron
5) high alloy cast iron

1) Gray cast iron

Gray cast iron gives gray fracture surface.
They are widely used therefore they are important in
In the manufacture of gray cast iron cementite
separetes into graphite and austenite or ferrite by
controlling the alloy composition and cooling rates.
Most gray cast iron are hypoeutectoid alloys
containing between 2.5-4%C.
Individual grades of gray cast iron depend upon the
amount of graphite present distribution pattern and
structure of iron around it.

2) Ductile cast iron

Ductile (or nodular) cast iron is alloyed with
Mg (magnesium) which precipitates out
carbon in the form of small spheres this ,then
improves some of the mechanical properties
our gray cast iron.

3) White cast iron

This type of cast iron is produced by a process called
chilling which prevents graphite carbon from
precipitating out.
Either gray or ductile iron can be chilled to produce a
surface of white iron
In the cast iron most of carbon is combined with iron
as iron carbide (cementite) a very hard material.
Grades of white iron depend on the amount of
cementite in the surrounding structure.
white iron,so called because of its very white
structure ,can be formed only dyring solidification.

4) Malleable cast iron

This is a white iron that has been converted to a
malleable condition by a two stage heat treatment.
Malleable iron differs from other cast iron in the
shape of the contained graphite which exist as
tempered carbon nodules (compared with graphite
flakes in gray cast iron and true carbon spheroids in
ductile iron).
Two basic types of malleable iron are ferritic and
pearlitic. The third typeof malleable iron -martensiticis a pearlitic or ferritic grade that has been heat
treated and transformed to a martensitic structure.

5) High alloy cast iron

High alloy cast iron are ductile, gray or white
irons that contain over 3% alloy content.
These irons have properties that are signifiantly
different from the unalloyed irons and are
usually produced by specialized foundries.
Selecting the proper metal alloy for a casting is
difficult,primarily because the properties of the
finished part depend strongly upon the size
and the shape of the part.
This is very important to bear in wind when
deciding about the casting process.

There are various standardization bodies for
1) American AISI & ASTM
2) German DIN
3) Turkish TS, MKE
4) British BS
5) Euronorm

Steels are usually specified or designated by

the criteria of ;

process of manufacture
method of deoxidation
chemical composition and
mechanical properties

1) Designation by the process of manufacture

The purification of pig iron into
steel is accomplished by
four basic processes;
1-the basic Thomas or acid
Bessemer converter
2-the open heart furnace
3-the electric furnace
4-the basic oxygen furnace
(which is an evolution of
the steel making
The last two (the electric furnace and the
basic oxygen furnace) are the most widely
used processes and are replacing the other
two old type processes.
The electric furnace is employed when steel
free-from undesirable impurities is required

The following capital letter prefix are used to

designate the steels produced by the above
Turkish and DIN standards
T- Thomas converter
0- Oxygen converter
M-Open hearth furnace
E- Electric arc fumace
I- Induction fumace

American (AISI) standards

A- Basic Open hearth alloy
B- Acid Bessemer carbon
C- Basic Open hearth carbon
D- Acid open hearth carbon
E- Electric are fumace alloy
X- Composition varies from
normal limits

2. Designation by the method of deoxidation

In steel making process the primary reaction involved
is the combination of carbon and oxygen to form a
If the oxygen available for this reaction is not
removed prior to or during casting (by the addition of
ferro-silicon or some other deoxidizer) the gaseous
products continue to evolve during solidification.
Improper control of the amount of gas evolved during
solidification then cause non-uniformity in the
microstructure of the steel.
Proper control of the amount of gas evolved during
solidification determines the type of steel.

For "killed" steels, elements such as aluminum and silicon

may be added to combine chemically with the oxygen,
removing most of it from the liquid steel.
Killed steels are often specified for hot forging, carburizing,
and other processes or applications where maximum
uniformity is required. In sheet steel, aging is controlled by
killing -- usually with aluminum. Steels intended for use in
the as-cast condition are always killed. For this reason,
steels for casting are always fully deoxidized.
On the other hand, for "rimmed" steels, oxygen (in the
form of carbon monoxide) evolves briskly throughout the
solidification process. The outer skin of rimmed steels is
practically free from carbon and is very ductile. For these
reasons, rimmed steels are often specified for coldforming applications. Rimmed steels are often available in
grades with less than 0.25% C and 0.60% Mn.

Segregation -- a nonuniform variation in internal

characteristics and composition that results when
various alloying elements redistribute themselves during
solidification -- may be pronounced in rimmed steels. For
this reason, they are usually not specified for hot forging
or for applications requiring uniformity.
"Capped" and "semikilled" steels fall between the
rimmed and killed steels in behavior, properties, and
degree of oxidation and segregation.
Capped steels, for example, are suited for certain coldforming applications because they have a soft, ductile,
surface skin, which is thinner than rimmed-steel skin. For
other cold-forming applications, such as cold extrusion,
killed steels are more suitable

To brief or summarize the process of de-oxidation:

Killed steels(R) are strongly deoxidized steels with no
gas evolved during solidification these steels are
characterized by a relationly high degree of uniformity
of composition and properties. Recommended for
forging ,piercing ,carburising and heat treating
Semi killed steels (H) have relatively less uniform
properties & composition across the size (section) of
the ingot
Rimmed steels(U) are only slightly deoxidized. They
have marked differences in compositon across the
section and from top to bottom of the ingot.
Specially killed steels (RR)

Killed steels - completely deoxidized steels,

solidification of which does not cause formation of carbon
monoxide (CO). Ingots and castings of killed steel have
homogeneous structure and no gas porosity (blowholes).
Semi-killed steels - incompletely deoxidized steels
containing some amount of excess oxygen, which forms
carbon monoxide during last stages of solidification.
Rimmed steels - partially deoxidized or non-deoxidized
low carbon steels evolving sufficient amount of carbon
monoxide during solidification. Ingots of rimmed steels
are characterized by good surface quality and
considerable quantity of blowholes.

3)Designation by the chemical

Following steel groups aredesignated by
their chemical compositions:
Plain carbon steels
Alloy steels
Tool steels
Stainless steels
HSLA steels and
Super alloys

3)Designation by the chemical

a-Plain Carbon Steels: (DIN,TS)
the general designation for plain carbon
steels which have only the carbon as alloying
element is CiXX where XX/100 is the
percentage content of the carbon;
where i refers to the grade of the control of the
some alloying elements and also to some
mechanical properties (i=k, m, f, etc)

Here are some chemical content designations in

different countries.
Values show the % carbon content within the steel

b- alloy steels:
in Turkey mainly DIN & AISI designations are
In DIN designation,
multiplication factors are used for the content
of the alloying elements these factors are:

For example in DIN designation

16Mn Cr S 5 0 50 is an alloy steel with

= 0.16% C
= 1.25% Mn
= 0 % Cr
= 0.5% S

AISI (SAE) &MKE designations use 4 digit

numbers to denote the type of (alloy) steels:
The first two of digits indicate the type or alloy
The last two (and in the special cases, three)
digits give the carbon content (X100).
Plain carbon steels, for example is denoted
by the basic numeral 10. Thus steel 1030
indicate a plain carbon steel containing

Some times capital letter prefixes or suffixes

are added to designate the type of process or
Some example for the prefixes are C1020,
B1112, A3140, E52100 so on.
C: for basic open heart carbon
B: for acid besemer carbon
A: for basic open hearth alloy
E: for electric arc furnace alloy

Table AISI & MKE steels

1XXX carbon steel
10XX plain carbon steels
13XX manganese steels
2XXX nickel steels
23XX nickel steels with 3.5%Ni
25XX nickel steels with 5%Ni

nickel-chromium steels
nickel-cr steels with 1.25%Ni 0.6%Cr
nickel-cr steels with 1.75%Ni 1%Cr
nickel-cr steels with 3.5%N 1.5%Cr


molydenum steels


chromium steels
low cr
medium cr




tungsten steels




silicon mangenese steels

C) Tool steels
These steels are divided into four broad
groups in German and Turkish designation as
In German standards tool steels are grouped

In Turkish standards tool steels are grouped


The designation of carbon tool steels (group

1) is the same as that of carbon steels.
i.e. C60W3 with 0.60% C content
C110W2 with 1.10% C content etc
The only difference is that a quality symbol
follows the usual designation.
The quality symbol is "W" with W1, W2 and W3
denoting an increase in the quality in the order
(special, extra, best quality).
The symbol WS is used to denote a special
purpose tool steel.

High speed steels (Group 2 ) are designated as:

S xx-yy-zz-uu
where S denotes high speed steel and
xx is the % content of W
yy is the % content of Mo
zz is the % content of V
uu is the % content of Co
no multiplication factor is used.



means 10% W, 4% Mo, 3% V and 10% Co

means 18% W, 0% Mo, 1% V and 0% Co

Group 3&4 (cold & hot work tool steels)

are designated according to the designation
of alloy:
DIN and ASL elik uses the same
i.e. 40NiMo10 8 means 0.40% C, 2.5%Ni and
MKE uses the basic AISI designation for
alloy steels and tools steels are classified
into groups by the AISI. All these groups of
tool steels and the corresponding
designations are shown in table 1.3

D) Stainless steels
These are the large and widely used family of
chromium alloys known for their corrosion resistance,
obtained by a large chromium content (min. 10.5%).
The DIN designation of the stainless steels is the
same as alloy steels.
X40 Cr 13, X12 CrNi 18 8, and X20 Cr 13 are the DIN
designations of the three types of stainless steel
produced by the MKE.
The MKE's own designation of these steels is based
on the basic SAE system (51440, 3915 and
51420, in the same order).

AISI groups wrought stainless steels into four major

categories based on metallurgical structure as
(1) austenitic,
(2) ferritic,
(3) martensitic, and
(4) precipitation hardening.
AISI designation of stainless steels is similar to the
AISI designation of alloy steels
ex: 30201, 30347, 51405, 51430 etc.
Cast stainless steels are considered as another group.

The DIN designation of cast stainless steels is the

same as that of the alloy steels only to be
preceeded by the letter G to indicate casting;

e- Steels for Strength and HSLA Steels:

The steels of very high strength are
usually proprietary, and are not
consequently specifed by the standard
However there are some special
designation or trade name such as;

f- super alloys :
are designated by the AISI 600 series with the specifications of
high temperature & high strength.

616 for example is equivalent to DIN designation of

X20CrMoWV12 1

4. Designation by Mechanical Properties:

The steels for general structural purposes are
designated by the mechanical properties by the DN,
EURONORM, and KARABK D.., Turkey.
These steels are designated by
the tensile strength (in kg/mm2) by the DIN and Karabk
by either the tensile or the yield strength by the

St xx-y
is the DIN designation where xx is the
tensile strength in kg/mm2 and y is the quality grade
number denoting maximum P &S content


Main four elements of cast irons are ;
iron, carbon, silicon and manganese
Gray cast iron is designated by its
tensile strength.
Some of the standarts & the
corresponding designations for the gray
CI are as follows:
TS 1111
DIN 1691
BS 1452

DDL-XX kg/mm2
GL-XX kg/mm2
class -XX lb/in2x1000
grade-XX MPa

XX is the tensile
strength in kg/mm2

Ductile or nodular cast iron

is designated by a three letter abbrevration
followed by the tensile strength (xx in kg/mm 2),
such as
DDK-XX in TS 1111 and (e.g. DDK-35)
GGG-XX in DIN 1693 (e.g. GGG-45)

ASTM designation (A339-55 and A396-58) of a

typical alloy is given as xx-yy-zz,
60-45-15 for example, means
a minimum tensile strength of 60psi
a minimum Sy of 45psi and
15% elongation in 20 inches.

White iron
There are no specifications for white iron unlike
the gray iron
the symbols DDB and GGW are used to
designate the white iron in short form by the
TS&DIN respectively
Malleable cast iron
is designated as
DDTS-xx (and DDTB-xx) in TS 1111 and
GTS-xx (and GTW-xx) DIN 1692

followed by the minimum tensile strength (xx in

kg/mm2 ) of the material.
Examples are: DDTS-35 & GTS-40

The ASTM designation of malleable CI is

based on 5digit system xxxyy
where xxx multiplied by 100 is the Sy value
in psi and yy is the % elongation over 2in
gauge length
e.g. 32510 means Sy=32500psi and 10% elongation
50005 means Sy=50000psi and 5% elongation

By the definition all metalic materials that do not
have iron (Fe) as their major ingredent are
called non-ferrous metals.
The arbitrary classifications or grouping of the
non-ferrous metals are:
1)Light metals (Al,Mg,Ti,Be)
2)Heavy metals (Cu,Zn,Pb,Sn .)
3)Precious metals (Au,silver,platinum)
4)Reftractory metals (tungsten,Ni,Mo,Cr)


The border of light and heavy metals is around

Metals with densities below 5000kg/m3 are called
the light metals and others above 5000kg/m3 are
called the heavy metals
The lightest metal is the Lithium with the density
of 530kg/m3 and the heaviest metal is the
osmium with density of 22500kg/m3
The steel(iron) whereas has a density of
7800kg/m3 only
Some examples for light metals are Al, Be, Mg, Ti

Aluminum currently is probably the most important

of the nonferrous metals.
Aluminum and its alloys number hundreds, and are
available in all common commercial forms.
Aluminum is outstanding for its physical properties
such as light weight, high thermal and electrical
conductivity, and corrosion resistance.
it is suitable for casting, all machining and forming
Aluminum materials can be classified into three major
1. Pure aluminum and aluminum alloys.
2. Heat-treatable and nonheat-treatable alloys.
3. Wrought or cast alloys.

Beryllium is a recently emergent material which has several

unique properties:
low density (one third lighter than aluminum);
high modulus/density ratio (six times greater than
ultrahigh-strength steels);
high melting point;
dimensional stability;
excellent thermal conductivity and transparency to X rays.
On the other hand, it has serious deficiencies:
it is expensive;
its use is severely limited by its poor ductiiity;
all compounds of beryllium are dangerously toxic.
Beryilium is not especially receptive to alloying

Magnesium is the lightest engineering material

The combination of low density and good mechanical
strength of magnesium alloys has made it one of the
most specifed materials in aircraft, space, portable
power tools, luggage and similar applications,
competing with the aluminum alloys.
Alloys of magnesium are the easiest of all engineering
metals to machine.
They are amenable to die casting, and they are easily
Furthermore, the magnesium parts can be joined by
rivetting and adhesive bonding

Titanium is used in corrosive environments or in

applications that take advantage of its
light weight,
high strength, and
nonmagnetic properties

Titanium has good high temperature strength

compared with the other light metals.
Titanium, like steel, is allotropic; i.e., it can exist
in two different crystallographic forms. They are
called the alpha phase and the beta phase.

Copper is probably the first engineering metal
to be used;
because, unlike other metals, it can occur in
nature in the metallic form as well as an ore.
It has very good heat and electric conductivity
and resist to corrosion when alloyed with other
Copper alloys can be grouped into two major
catagories as
(1) cast alloys and
(2) wrought alloys.

Cast copper alloys are used in the form in

which they are originally moulded. This
naturally restricts the subsequent operations.
The wrought copper alloys consist of the
following general categories.

a. Coppers Contain minimum 99.3% Cu.

b. High-Copper Alloys- Contain 96-99.3% Cu.
c. Brasses Contain zinc as the principal
alloying element. (5-40% Zn)
d. Bronze Originally, copper-tin alloys, but
contain a variety of other elements,at present,
in addition to tin, or other than tin.
e. Copper nickels (Cupro nickels) Contain
nickel as the main alloying element.
f. Nickel silvers Copper-nickel-zinc alloys.
They actually do not certain silver.

Zinc is an inexpensive material with moderate

Chemically zinc is similar to magnesium.
Mechanically,however ,zinc is more ductile but
not as strong.
Although its metal & alloy forms are important
zinc is most commonly used to extend the life
of other materials such as steel (galvanizing),
rubber and plastic (as an aging inhibitor), and
wood (n paint coatings).

Lead is a versatile material which has

applications that derive from its special
properties of high atomic weight and
density, softness, ductility, low strength,
low melting point, corrosion resistance,
and ability to lubricate.
Toxicity of its compounds is one of the
chief disadvantages.

In general, lead does not form useful alloys

except with other metals with low
In the free machining leaded steel alloys the
lead is not an alloy ingredient but an
Lead is alloyed with tin and antimony to form a
series of useful alloys, which are mainly
employed for their low melting points.
Lead-base "babbitt" bearing alloys contain 7590% lead, plus antimony and tin.

Tin is most commonly used as a coating for

other metals - such as the tin cans, copper
cooking utensils, and so on.
Other applications include die-casting alloys,
pewter chemicals, bronze, bearing alloys, and
Tin alloys are cast, rolled, drawn,and may be
extruded or atomized.
As with many metals, pure tin is too weak to be
used alone for most mechanical applications.
Tin is often alloyed with elements such as
copper,antimony, lead, aluminum and zinc to
improve mechanical or physical properties.

Refractory metals have melting points above
These metals are characterized by hightemperature strength and corrosion resistance.
Although nickel has a lower melting point
(1455C), because of its use in applications
usually requiring specific corrosion resistance or
strength at high temperatures, it is also
categorized in this group.
it must, however, be pointed out that the
prominent, actual refractory metals are tungsten,
molybdenum, tantalum and columbium.
In addition to these, chromium and nio-bium are
receiving major consideration as hightemperature materials.

Nickel is one of the most important of engineering

Nickel and its alloys are used in a variety of applications
usually requiring specific corrosion resistance or
strength at high temperatures.
Nickel alloys have a wide range of desirable properties
such as ultra-high strength, high proportional limit, and
high modulus of elasticity.
Commercially pure nickel has good electrical, magnetic,
and magnetostrictive properties.
Nickel alloys are strong, tough and ductile at cryogenic
On the other hand, several nickel-based superalloys are
specified for high-strength applications at temperatures
up to 1100C.
High-carbon nickel-base casting alloys are used regularly
at moderate stresses above 1200C.

Tungsten and molybdenum have had industrial

uses for many decades, Thomas Edison's
experimentation with tungsten during the
invention of the incandescent lamp being the
most important application.
Tungsten and molybdenum are the chief carbideformers in high-speed steels, molybdenum
tending to replace tungsten in this application
because of its lower weight.
Though both metals have very desirable
mechanical properties at high temperatures,
they both have the serious defects of great
brittleness at room temperature and pronounced
oxidation at relatively low temperatures.

Tungsten is the only refractory metal that has

excellent erosion resistance, good electrical
and thermal couductivity, low coefficient of
expansion, and high strength-at elevated
Molybdenum is one of the few metals that have
some degree of resistance to hydrofluoric acid.
Properties of molybdenum are similar to those
of tungsten, however, molybdenum is more
ductile, easier to fabricate, and cheaper.

Columbium and Tantalum are distinguished by

excellent ductilty, even at low temperature.
Both metals occur together in ores and they
must be separated for nuclear use, since
tantalum has a high neutron absorption and that
of columbium is low
Columbium and tantaium can be fabricated by
most conventional procedures,
These metals are usually considered together
because most of their working operations are
Tantalum and columbium are usually worked at
room temperature.

The family of metals called precious metals can be divided
into three subgroups:
(1) gold and gold alloys;
(2) silver and silver alloys; and
(3) "platinum group" metals.

Most precious metals are available as sheet, tape, foil,

wire, tubing, gauze, discs, electrodes, cathodes,
crucibles, catalysts, and salts and solutions for plating
and coating.
The precious metals are nearly completely corrosion
platinum metals withstand service up to 1760C without
any evidence of erosion and corrosion

granite etc

B.2) Artificials

Thermosets etc
Metal matrix composites
Ceramic matrix composites
Polymer matrix composites

Plastics: A plastic is a synthetic material of
high molecular weight, composed of repeating
organic chemical units.
Plastics can be moulded or formed into useful
shapes by various proceses usually involving
heat and/or pressure.
Plastics are not found in nature.They are
made synthetically from basic chemical raw
materials called monomers.

Plastic polymers are always composed of atoms

of carbon in combination with other elements.
At present, only eight elements are utilized to
create thousands of different plastics.
These eight elements are carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, silicon, sulfur, and
Plastics are classified into two main groups:
1) thermo plastics and
2) thermo setting plastics

Thermoplastics can be re-shaped upon being heated, more

significantly, can be reground or remolded.
Many uses have been found for the various types of
thermoplastic materials,and processes have been under
development to produce economical finished and semifinished parts.
Thermoplastics can be moulded, rolled into sheets,used for
strip coatings,and extruded into shapes.
The material can be reused,therefore, there is little waste
Thermoplastic materials can be obtained in any shape of any
desired colour or mixture of colours as well as in any desired
degree of transparency,including crystal clear and opaque.
This is a definite advantage thus eliminating painting or other
finishing operations required to achieve the desired sales
Some examples of thermoplastics are given in Table 1.11.

Thermo setting plastics:

The term thermoset means a plastic which sets, or completes
the polymerzation under heat and effect of ather agents.
The actual distinguishing factor between the two classes
(thermo plastic and thermosets) is whether the polymer chains
remain linear and separate after moulding or whether they
undergo three-dimensional chain combination cross-linking.
Linear plastics (thermo plastic) can be considered to be
unchanged during moulding and can be remolded over and
The chains of crosslinked plastics (thermosets )are, however,
joined irreversibly during moulding which does not permit
Crosslinking can be initiated by heat, chemical agents (curing
agents), irradiation, or a combination of these.
thermo sets has improved resistance to heat (thus can not be
remolded), chemical attack, stress cracking,and creep in
comparison with the same plastic in the thermo plastic form.
In addition thermosets have better dimensional stability and
electrical properties than do the thermoplastics.

Most thermosets are used principally in filled and/or

reinforced form for improved properties or for
they are more difficult to process and are more brittle
than the thermoplastics.
some examples of the thermo sets are;

epoxy ,

Few plastics are used on their own.
Nearly all contain a number of additives to
improve the properties, to facilitate processing
or to reduce costs.
the following are the important additives
employed by the plastics industry.
colourants, filler, catalysts, plasticizers,
stabilizers, fibre reterdants, labricants.

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) have proven to be the

fastest growing engineering material.
They offer properties and performance benefits
considerably beyond those avaiiable in the
unreinforced resins.
Though the cost of the fiber-reinforced plastics is
higher, it is usually more than offset by the gain in
These materials are extremely versatile composites
with relatively high strength to weight ratios and
excellent corrosion resistance.
in addition, they can be formed economically into
virtually any shape and size; from tiny electronic
components to large cruising boat hulls.

The FRP's are composed of three major components:

(1) matrix; (2) fiber, and (3) bonding agent
Some examples of FRPs with different fiber and
matrixes are;
1)glass-reinforced thermoplastics
2)carbon reinforced thermoplastics
3)reinforced thermosetting plastics
4)laminated plastics
5)sandwich composites
Each of these types aims the improvements in
mechanical & chemical properties as well as in the
final cost.

While several different methods are used to
produce structural-foam parts, all systems
disperse a gas into the polymer melt during
This is done either by adding a chemical
blowing agent to the compound or by inducing
a gas directly into the melt.
The gas creates the cellular core structure in
the part during the moulding process making
the material more efficient in terms of strength
to weight ratio compared to conventional

These are commonly refered to as "rubbers
The ASTM defines an elastomer as "a
polymeric material which at room temperature
can be stretched to at least twice its original
length and upon immediate release of the
stress will return quickly to approximately its
original length".

The raw polymer of an elastomer is generally

composed of monomers which are linked endto-end to form long chains, free to bend or
rotate at most of the links.
These tangled chains can slide past each other
except where they are attacked by crosslinks
which tie the molecular chains together and
limit the amount of stretch.
Crosslinking occurs during vulcanisation of the
moulded part and is effected by catalysts in
conjunction with heat and pressure.

Some examples of elastomers are:

Natural rubber
Nitric butadiene
Chlorinated polyethylene
Ethylene propylene

Properties and applications for these

elastomers are given in detail in the textbook.

Generally, ceramics are hard and brittle and cannot
endure high tensile loads or sudden impact.
On the other hand, ceramics have high compressive
strengths and resistance to high temperature.
Ceramics are made of metal oxides, metal carbides,
and silicates, though some borides, hydrides, sulfides,
and nitrides are also in use in industry.
Ceramics can be made into bricks, trbine blades,
grinding wheels, carbide bits to machine materials.
These are only few examples of the ceramic products.
Ceramics are becoming increasingly important as
materials used in manufacturing.
They have had extensive use in the electrical industry
due to high electrical resistance.

An "engineering ceramic" is usually selected to meet any (or

combination) of the following
design requirements:

high temperature,
compressive loads,
severe abrasion,

or the need for

extreme rigidity,
creep resistance,
high-temperature corrosion resistance, and
special physical properties.

In fact, the behaviour and properties of a ceramic also depend on

how the part is made and how the ceramic particles are bonded
Most ceramic parts are made by first compressing the particles
into preform and then by further processing chemically and
mechanically to produce the final ceramic part.


These are a composite of a metal and a ceramic

they are sometimes called cermets and
cemented carbides
they combine some of the high reftractoriness of
ceramics and the toughness and thermal-shock
resistance of metals.
to produce parts form cermet material powders
are pressed into moulds at medium and high
presses they are then sintered in controlled
atmosphere furnaces at about 1650 C

There are four different system of RHMs used for

structural applications (not for metal cutting).
Tungsten carbide with 3% to 10% matrix of cobalt often
specified for combined wear and impact resistance
Combination of tungten and tantalum carbides in a matrix
of nickel, cobalt, or chromium provides a formulation
especially suited for a combination of corrosion and wear
Tungsten titanium carbides (WTiC2) in cobalt is used
primarily for metal forming dies and similar applications.
Titantium carbide has a molybdenum or nickel matrix and is
formulated for high-temperature service

Carbon, a nonmetallic element, exists in three
generic forms:
graphite and
black, or amorphous carbon.

All three are useful engineering materials.

Diamond is used for engineering purposes
primarily, because it is the hardest naturally
occuring material, although synthetic boron
nitride, or "borazon" has similar mechanical
properties and will scratch diamond

Graphite is
readily machinable,
resist heat and thermal shock,
a good heat conductor, and
is chemically inert to almost all corrosives except
strong oxidizing agents.

Black carbon is often specified for low-friction


Composite is a combination of two or more
materials that has the properties that the
components do not have by themselves
composites bring the superior properties of
components together to serve better in
applications like:

high strength
high temperature ,
good lubricity
good chemical resistance ,
low density,
ease of processing

But all of these good properties may not come

together always
generally metals ,plastics or ceramics are
brougth together in different properties by
different methods to produce composite
materials with better properties
Composites usually consist of a matrix
material with the reinforcing elements of
Particulate materials

to give enhanced mechanical properties to the

final product

Matrix gives the composite its bulk form and

structural constituents determine the character
of the composites internal structure.
the structural constituents can be categorized
fibre composites
particulate composites
Laminates laminar/laminated
flake composite
filled composite






Examples of laminar and sandwich composites