Process Layout

Chapter 8

© 2007 Pearson Education

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Layout Planning
 Layout planning is planning that involves decisions
about the physical arrangement of economic activity
centers needed by a facility’s various processes.
 Layout plans translate the broader decisions about the
competitive priorities, process strategy, quality, and capacity
of its processes into actual physical arrangements.

 Economic activity center: Anything that consumes
space -- a person or a group of people, a customer
reception area, a teller window, a machine, a
workstation, a department, an aisle, or a storage
room.
© 2007 Pearson Education

Layout Planning
Questions
Before a manager can make decisions
regarding physical arrangement, four
questions must be addressed.
1. What centers should the layout include?
2. How much space and capacity does
each center need?
3. How should each center’s space be
configured?
4. Where should each center be located?
© 2007 Pearson Education

Increasing customer satisfaction and sales at a retail store. Improving communication.Strategic Issues Impact and Implications  Layout choices can help communicate an organization’s product plans and competitive priorities. 2. Reducing hazards to workers. 6. Increasing the efficient utilization of labor and equipment.  Altering a layout can affect an organization and how well it meets its competitive priorities in the following ways: 1. Facilitating the flow of materials and information. 5. 4. 3. © 2007 Pearson Education . Improving employee morale.

 Fixed-position layout: An arrangement in which service or manufacturing site is fixed in place.  Hybrid layout: An arrangement in which some portions of the facility have a flexible-flow and others have a line-flow layout. © 2007 Pearson Education .Types of Layouts  Flexible-flow (process) layout: A layout that organizes resources (employees) and equipment by function rather than by service or product. employees along with their equipment.  Line-flow (product) layout: A layout in which workstations or departments are arranged in a linear path. come to the site to do their work.

© 2007 Pearson Education Grinding Forging Lathes Painting Welding Drills Office Milling machines Foundry .A Flexible Flow Layout A job shop has a flexible-flow layout.

Station 1 © 2007 Pearson Education Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 .Line Flow Layout A production line has a line-flow layout.

6. Product Standardized made to stock Varied.Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts PRODUCT LAYOUT Sequential arrangement of machines PROCESS LAYOUT Functional grouping of machines 2. mainly assembly Intermittent. Description Demand Volume Equipment Workers © 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc © 2007 Pearson Education Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e Ch 7 . Stable High Special purpose Limited skills Fluctuating Low General purpose Varied skills 1. 5. made to order 4. job shop batch production. Type of Process Continuous. mass production.9 . mainly fabrication 3. 7.

Advantage © 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc © 2007 Pearson Education Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e PRODUCT LAYOUT Low in-process. Goal 15.10 . Storage space 10.Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts 8. Scheduling 13. high finished goods Small Fixed path (conveyor) Narrow Part of balancing Line balancing Equalize work at each station Efficiency PROCESS LAYOUT High in-process. Layout decision 14. Inventory 9. Aisles 12. Material handling 11. low finished goods Large Variable path (forklift) Wide Dynamic Machine location Minimize material handling cost Flexibility Ch 7 .

Performance Criteria          Customer satisfaction Level of capital investment Requirements for materials handling Ease of stockpicking Work environment and “atmosphere” Ease of equipment maintenance Employee and internal customer attitudes Amount of flexibility needed Customer convenience and levels of sales © 2007 Pearson Education .

Creating Hybrid Layouts  Layout flexibility is the property of a facility to remain desirable after significant changes occur or to be easily and inexpensively adopted in response to changes. multiple-machines (OWMM) cell is a one-person cell in which a worker operates several different machines simultaneously to achieve a line flow.  A One-worker. © 2007 Pearson Education .  A Cell is two or more dissimilar workstations located close together through which a limited number of parts or models are processed with line flows.

One Worker. Multiple Machines Machine 2 Machine 1 Machine 3 Materials in Finished goods out © 2007 Pearson Education Machine 5 Machine 4 .

Group Technology (GT)  Group Technology (GT) is an option for achieving line-flow layouts with low-volume processes.  The GT method groups parts or products with similar characteristics into families and sets aside groups of machines for their production. this technique creates cells not limited to just one worker and has a unique way of selecting work to be done by the cell. © 2007 Pearson Education .

Before Group Technology Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells Lathing L L Milling L L M Drilling M M D D D D M Grinding L L L L Receiving and shipping © 2007 Pearson Education M M Assembly A A A A G G G G G G .

Applied Group Technology Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells L L M L G M Assembly area A Cell 2 Cell 1 Receiving D G A G Cell 3 L © 2007 Pearson Education M D Shipping .

Classification and Coding System © 2007 Pearson Education Source: Organization for Industrial Research Inc. .

Original Process Layout Assembly 4 6 7 5 8 2 1 A © 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc © 2007 Pearson Education Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e 10 3 B 9 C 12 11 Raw materials Ch 7 .34 .

37 .Cellular Layout Solution Assembly 8 10 9 12 11 4 Cell1 Cell 2 6 Cell 3 7 2 Raw materials © 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc © 2007 Pearson Education Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e 1 3 A C 5 B Ch 7 .

Warehouse Layouts Out-and-back Pattern  The most basic warehouse layout is the out-and-back pattern. Storage area 3 5 5 Dock 6 2 7 4 2 7 Aisle 1 5 5 4 Storage area © 2007 Pearson Education 4 . The numbers indicate storage areas for same or similar items.

Warehouse Layouts Zone System Zones Zones Control station Shipping doors Click to add title Tractor trailer Tractor trailer Feeder lines © 2007 Pearson Education Feeder lines Overflow .

Activity settings 4.  Privacy is another key factor in office design.Office Layouts  Most formal procedures for designing office layouts try to maximize the proximity of workers whose jobs require frequent interaction. Electronic cottages (Telecommuting) © 2007 Pearson Education . Traditional layouts 2. Office landscaping (cubicles/movable partitions) 3.  Four common office layouts: 1.

 Immediate predecessors are work elements that must be done before the next element can begin. work elements are denoted by circles.  Precedence diagram allows one to visualize immediate predecessors better.Designing Line-Flow Layouts  Line balancing is the assignment of work to stations in a line so as to achieve the desired output rate with the smallest number of workstations.  Work elements are the smallest units of work that can be performed independently. © 2007 Pearson Education . with the time required to perform the work shown below each circle.

3 Green Grass.. Inc. Using the following information. the Big Broadcaster. construct a precedence diagram for the Big Broadcaster. © 2007 Pearson Education . a manufacturer of lawn & garden equipment. is designing an assembly line to produce a new fertilizer spreader.Line Balancing Example 8.

Work Element A B C D E F G H I Time Immediate Description (sec) Predecessor(s) Bolt leg frame to hopper 40 None Insert impeller shaft 30 A Attach axle 50 A Attach agitator 40 B Attach drive wheel 6 B Attach free wheel 25 C Mount lower post 15 C Attach controls 20 D. G Total Line Balancing Green Grass. E Mount nameplate 18 F. D B 244 40 30 E C F 25 50 I G © 2007 Pearson Education 20 6 A 40 H 15 18 . Inc.

c is the maximum time allowed for work on a unit at each station: c= 1 r © 2007 Pearson Education .  Cycle time.Desired Output and Cycle Time  Desired output rate. r must be matched to the staffing or production plan.

© 2007 Pearson Education . where total time required to assemble each unit (the sum of all work-element standard times) is divided by the cycle time. Balance Delay is the amount by which efficiency falls short of 100%.Theoretical Minimum Theoretical minimum (TM ) is a benchmark or goal for the smallest number of stations possible. Efficiency (%) is the ratio of productive time to total time. It must be rounded up Idle time is the total unproductive time for all stations in the assembly of each unit.

 Desired output rate.4 Green Grass. r = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week r = 2400/40 = 60 units/hour  Cycle time. c = 1/60 = 1 minute/unit = 60 seconds/unit © 2007 Pearson Education 1 r .Output Rate and Cycle Time Example 8. Inc.

7% © 2007 Pearson Education .3) = 18.amount by which efficiency falls short of 100%.067 It must be rounded up to 5 stations Cycle time: c = 1/60 = 1 minute/unit = 60 seconds/unit Efficiency (%) . (100 − 81. TM = 244 seconds/60 seconds = 4.4 continued Theoretical minimum (TM ) .sum of all work-element standard times divided by the cycle time. Efficiency = [244/5(60)]100 = 81.Calculations for Example 8.3% Balance Delay .ratio of productive time to total time.

Inc. and the cycle time of 60 seconds is not violated.The goal is to cluster the work elements into 5 workstations so that the number of work-stations is minimized.3% H 6 S5 I G 15 18 . Here we use the trial-and-error method to find a solution. Line Balancing Solution D B 30 S3 S1 A S2 40 C 40 © 2007 Pearson Education 20 E S4 F 25 50 c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81. although commercial software packages are also available. Green Grass.

Thus exploring a range of cycle times makes sense.Other Considerations In addition to balancing a line. © 2007 Pearson Education . 3. 2. 4. and efficiency varies considerably with the cycle time selected. Number of models produced: A mixed-model line produces several items belonging to the same family. Cycle times depend on the desired output rate. Pacing: The movement of product from one station to the next as soon as the cycle time has elapsed. Behavioral factors of workers. managers must also consider four other options: 1.

G Estimated Duration 5 5 6 13 6 4 9 2 . C B D C E. F.Information for Network Construction Name: Project Delta Activity Description A B C D E F G H Predecessors Contract signing Questionnaire design Target market ID Survey sample Develop presentation Analyze results Demographic analysis Presentation to client © 2007 Pearson Education None A A B.

© 2007 Pearson Education .

D E F G. C B C.Construct a network activity diagram based on the following information: Activity A B C D E F G H I © 2007 Pearson Education Preceding activities A B. H .

© 2007 Pearson Education .

© 2007 Pearson Education .