BASIC COURSE ON WELDING

PURPOSE
The purpose of this course is to provide
and make yourself understand the
basic terms and definition related with
the process of welding.

SCOPE OF PRESENTATION
Definitions & types of Joint/Weld
Weld Symbols
Welding Processes
Basic Non-Destructive Testing

DEFINITIONS
JOINT:
Alignment of members
WELD JOINT:
Aligning the metals for welding.
WELDING:
Joining 2 materials with the use of heat/pressure
with or without addition of filler metal.

Joint Lap Joint Corner Joint Closed Open .TYPES OF JOINTS Butt Joint T.

TYPES OF WELDS Butt Weld Fillet Weld Spot/Seam Weld Edge Weld Plug Weld .

TYPICAL WELD JOINT TERMINOLOGY .

TYPES OF SINGLE BUTT PREPARATION .

TYPES OF DOUBLE BUTT PREPARATION .

WELDED BUTT JOINTS .

WELDED T-JOINTS .

WELDED LAP JOINT .

WELDED CORNER JOINTS .

WELDED CORNER JOINTS .

COMPLETED WELD TERMINOLOGY BUTT WELD Bevel Angle Face Side Weld Toe Weld Reinforcement Root Land Root Gap Root penetration Root Side FILLET WELD .

SIGNIFICANCE OF BEVEL ► Ensuring fusion along the side walls of the joint ► Accessibility for Welding .

BREAK FOR 10 MINUTES .

WELDING SYMBOLS ► Welding symbols provide a system for placing complete welding information on drawing ► Graphical representation of weld including direction significance ► Welding symbol quickly indicate to the Designer. Supervisor and welding personnel which welding technique is required to satisfy the requirements for material strength and other requirements . Draftsman.

STANDARDS FOR WELD SYMBOLS 2 Types of Standards are used to define weld symbol ► AWS A2.4 (US) & BS 499 (UK) ► BS EN 22553 (ISO 2553) .

WELDING SYMBOL ELEMENTS AWS & BS Weld all around Arrow Line Reference Line Basic Weld Symbol Dimensions Supplementary information Site Weld Weld info for other side Tail Weld info for arrow side Reference Line Arrow Line .

BASIC CONSTRUCTION OF SYMBOL .

BASIC WELD SYMBOLS ON ARROW SIDE Fillet Weld Square Butt Single Bevel Single UGroove Single-V Groove Single J-Groove .

BASIC WELD SYMBOLS ON OTHER SIDE Fillet Weld Square Butt Single Bevel Single UGroove Single-V Groove Single J-Groove .

BASIC WELD SYMBOLS ON BOTH SIDE Fillet Weld Square Butt Double Bevel Double UGroove Double-V Groove Double JGroove .

BASIC WELD SYMBOL REPRESENTATION .

BASIC WELD SYMBOL REPRESENTATION .

BASIC WELD SYMBOL REPRESENTATION .

BASIC WELD SYMBOL REPRESENTATION .

BASIC WELD SYMBOL REPRESENTATION .

BASIC WELD SYMBOL REPRESENTATION .

SUPPLIMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Field Weld Weld All Around Convex Contour Fillet weld Grind Flush Concave Contour Fillet weld Tail my be used to Process/NDT/ Other info .

TEST ON WELD SYMBOLS .

WELD SYMBOL AS PER BS EN 22553 OR .

length of welds. go on the unbroken reference line Welds on the other side of the joint.e. length of any spaces All leg lengths shall be preceded by Z and throat by a or s . No. of welds. go on the broken reference line Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the vertical line to the left side of the symbol ALL CSA dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol i.WELD SYMBOL AS PER BS EN 22553 ► ► ► ► ► ► Welds this side of Joint.

WELD SYMBOL AS PER BS EN 22553 TYPICAL EXAMPLES Z8 OR Z8 8 a5 Z 8 5 8 OR a5 Z 8 .

WELDING PROCESSES .

Types of Prominent Welding Process in Fabrication Industry ► Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) ► Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) ► Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) ► Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) ► Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) .

Welding / Earthing Cable.SMAW . Electrode Holder and Earthing clamp ► Can used in all position ► High level of skill is required to deposit sound weld ► Some type of electrodes need conditioning for better performance . Consumable Electrode.PREVIEW ► Commonly used welding process ► Require AC/DC Power Source.

Inert Shielding gas and Earthing clamp Can used in all position High level of skill is required to deposit sound weld Deposition rate cannot increased beyond certain level Easy to control heat No electrode conditioning is required . Filler metal. Torch. Welding / Earthing Cable. non-Consumable Tg Electrode. tube-tube sheet and low thickness materials Require AC/DC Power Source.GTAW-PREVIEW ► ► ► ► ► ► ► Commonly used process for welding root pass in piping.

► Easy to control heat ► No electrode conditioning is required .GMAW/FCAW-PREVIEW ► High productivity Welding process ► Most commonly used process for welding thin sheet material ► Certain classification of electrodes can be used in all position welding ► Medium skilled welding process ► Not useful for root pass welding in full penetration welds.

. Mostly set-up time shall be compensated for high thickness weld deposit.SAW-PREVIEW ► High metal deposit welding process ► Mostly useable in flat or horizontal position ► High skill require to attain a sound deposit of weld metal ► Flux need to be conditioned before use ► High heat input process ► Set-up time is relatively large as compared with all other process.

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Common Type of NDT used: ► Radiographic Testing ► Ultrasonic Testing ► Magnetic Particle testing ► Liquid Penetrant Testing .

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING ► Useful in examining the internal defects of almost all materials except very thin sheets ► Produces permanent record of testing ► Need access on both sides of object need to be Radio graphed ► Radiation is harmful for humans. so safety procedures need to be followed strictly ► Cannot produce immediate results .

► Instant results ► No permanent record ► Not yield good results in coarse grain structure materials . ► Single side access is sufficient ► Primary used for materials having thickness at least 6mm or more ► Need high level of skill for interpreting the reflections from the defects.ULTRASONIC TESTING ► Sound waves are used to detect internal defects of material.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING ► Applicable only for Ferro-Magnetic materials ► Useful in detecting only surface and sub-surface defects ► Require demagnetizing to avoid arc blow during welding for high hardness materials ► Involves Electric hazard .

PENETRANT TESTING ► Utilises the principle of capillary rise for the detection of defects ► Useful only for detecting surface defects ► Low level skill is required ► Post cleaning is required .

THANK YOU Any Questions? .