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Capacity Areas Measurements

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Capacity Areas in UTRAN


Essential to monitor the available resources in UTRAN
Capacity from initial dimensioning phase may no be sufficient anymore
Marketing campaigns from operator leads to higher resource utilization

Capacity bottlenecks impact the call setup success rates (CSSR)


Mobile user perceives poor setup success rates directly
Unsatisfied customers usually seek for better performance in some
other network available (churn)

With current NSN measurements network capacity can be


monitored in a proactive mode
Traffic increase can be seen from mid or long term graphs
Capacity upgrades can be triggered taking into account existing lead
times HW units, internal procedures like planning or implementation

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Capacity Areas in UTRAN


During call set-up [RRC, RAB] several resource areas are checked and
physical / logical resources allocated.
Air Interface
1

WBTS HW Resources Transport


2

UL interference
DL transmisson power
DL Codes

DSP processing

RLC/MAC

IuB
FSP/ WSP capacity

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RNC

(N*) E1 capacity / AAL2

Resource allocation at RRC/RAB setup

1 Radio
resource
s

1a
Code
resource
s

2 WBTS
resources

AC

RM

NBAP
4 Iub
resources

CAC/AAL2
3 DMCU
allocation

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Resource allocation at RAB setup


UE

Node B

MGW

RNC

RRC Connection Establishment


Authentication & Security mode
Setup
Call Proceeding
Facility
RAB Assignment Request
Radio Link Reconfigure Prepare

2 WBTS
resources

1 AC,
RM

Radio Link Reconfigure Ready

3 DMCU

AAL2SIG:ERQ
AAL2SIG:ECF

4 - BTS
CAC

FP: Downlink Sync

4 RNC CAC

FP: Uplink Sync


AAL2SIG:ERQ

AAL2SIG:ECF
Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
Radio Bearer Setup
Radio Bearer Setup Complete

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RAS06 ..RU20 Counters groups & KPIs


summarizing
1- Capacity Areas in UTRAN
1.1 Air interface UL / DL
M1000
1.2 Code Tree in Downlink
M1000
1.3 WBTS WSP-C (FSP) Baseband process. power M5001
1.4 Transport Measurements
M550 / M800
1.5 DSP Resources in RNC
M609/612/615/617
1.6 Feature trigger analysis

2- Supporting measurements for more details


2.1 Traffic

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M1002

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1.1 Air interface > KPIs or counters to look at..


Uplink Rx level

also:
M1000C288 Maximum_Prx Total,
M1000C229 Minimum_PrxTotal

Downlink Tx level

also:
M1000C230 Maximum_PtxTotal,
M1000C231 Minimim_PtxTotal
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1.1 UL/DL Cell Power Online Monitoring


UL

Measurement: Cell Resource M1000


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1.1 Average DL power in a cell


W

Important indication for available DL power for Rel99 and HSDPA

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1.1 New important RU10 counters

M1000C320-C341 for Received Total Wideband Power


(class 21) in absolute units
M1000C342.C352 for Transmitted Carrier Power (Class 09) in
absolute units, depends on cell size setting via

PRACHDelayRange

for Transmitted Code Power (Class09) in


absolute units, depends on cell size setting via

M1000C353-C362

PRACHDelayRange

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1.2 Code Tree

SF, Spread Factor, are used the orthogonal variable spreading factor codes (OVSF
codes)
SF for the DL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512}
SF for the UL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256}

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1.2

Code occupancy in a cell (max, min)

max

min

Example from Rel99 only network


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1.2 Downlink Spreading Code availability


DL spreading codes (cc) are used to separate user data in a
cell
The code pool can run out of codes depending on:

Rel99 services allocated


HSDPA allocation (NxSF 16 codes out of 15 max, 5 min)
Resource blocking is more combinatory rather than numeric.

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1.2 Code Measurements on WCEL level


Following DL spreading code measurements are performed:
Code occupancy
Ave, Min, Max usage M1000C72, M1000C74, M1000C75
Code blocking
No codes available SF4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256
Successful code allocations

Number of code requests


SF4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256

M1000C76-M1000C82
M1000C83

M1000C259-M1000C265
M1000C248-M1000C258

HSDPA code usage

Duration of allocation 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 codes of SF 16


1 second interval sampling

HSDPA code downgrades


Triggered by RT call request
Triggered by NRT call request
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M1000C266
M1000C267

1.2 No codes available for SF 8 & SF 16


No Codes available SF 8, SF 16
160
140
120

number

100
no codes SF 16

80

no codes SF 8

60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
time (hour)

Measurement: Cell Resource M1000


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one day data

1.2 Code Tree usage nr. codes available SF x


RRM Feature impact
1800

Feature on

Feature off

Feature on

SF8= 384k

1600
1400
1200
1000
800
SF16=128k

600
400
200
0

No Code SF4
No Code SF64

No Code SF8
No Code SF128

No Code SF16
No Code SF256

No Code SF32

Throughput Based Optimisation of Packet Scheduler Algorithms feature


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1.3 WBTS Baseband Resources

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1.3 WBTS BB Capacity (Absolute # of CE) avg values

Measurement: M5001 WBTS HW Resources


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1.3 WBTS BB Capacity (Absolute # of CE) max values

Measurement: M5001 WBTS HW Resources


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1.3 WBTS BB Capacity (Traffic Mix Analysis)

Analyzing the service traffic mix which is supported by WBTS Base Band
Measurement: M1000 WBTS HW Resources
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1.3 Radio Link Setup fail due to WBTS BB Resources


M1005 Layer 3 on IuB interface

Processing power limitation starts here

L3 IuB measurements indicate resource blocking in WBTS baseband


Please note: NSN Nokia WBTS maps WSP shortage to failure cause MISC

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1.3 Counters
M5001 WBTS Baseband processing- RU10

M5001C3 MAX_USED_CE_DL
M5001C0 MAX_AVAIL _CE

M5001C5 MIN_USED_CE_DL

M5001C1 MIN_AVAIL _CE

M5001C6 MIN_USED_CE_UL

M5001C2 AVE_AVAIL_ CE

M5001C4 MAX_USED_CE_UL

M5001C7 AVG_USED_C E_DL


M5001C8 AVG_USED_C E_UL

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1.3 Counters

M5001 WBTS Baseband processing RU20


UL and DL absolute Channel Element allocation
Percentage of maximum available channel element resources
CCH, DCH, HSDPA, HSUPA
UL and DL percentage of maximum Channel Element resources for HSPA
HSDPA
HSUPA

DL/UL

DL/UL

See slide 26

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DL/UL

DL/UL

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1.3 Channel Elements capacity evaluation graph


Optimization
Licenses,
HW

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1.3 Channel Elements capacity Utilizations

Example

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Counter

Counter Name

Range

M5001C21

BTS_CE_TOTAL_UTIL_DL_CLASS_1

0% .. 50 %

M5001C22

BTS_CE_TOTAL_UTIL_DL_CLASS_2

50% .. 70 %

M5001C23

BTS_CE_TOTAL_UTIL_DL_CLASS_3

70% .. 80 %

M5001C24

BTS_CE_TOTAL_UTIL_DL_CLASS_4

80% .. 90 %

M5001C25

BTS_CE_TOTAL_UTIL_DL_CLASS_5

90% .. 100%

M5001C26

BTS_CE_TOTAL_UTIL_DL_CLASS_6

> 100 %

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1.4 AAL2 Transport

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1.4 Iub over ATM- VP Structure

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1.4 Iub IP over ATM Structure


Functional description: traffic mapping

Rel-99 RT, Control plane and O&M is carried over ATM Iub using E1s / STM1s
Rel-99 NRT, HSDPA, and HSUPA can be separately configured to either
ATM Iub using E1s / STM1s, or
IP Iub using Ethernet

For dedicated handling of HSPA RT traffic, RAN1004 Streaming QoS is required (*)

ATM
Switch

TDM Network
Control Plane
O&M
RT

n x T1

STM1
VPC

VPC

Ctrl Plane
O&M
RT

CBR VCCs
CBR VCCs
CBR VCCs
UBR+ VCCs

DCH NRT

DCH NRT
HSDPA NRT

HSDPA NRT

(*)

HSDPA RT(*)

HSDPA RT

Ethernet Network

HSUPA NRT
HSUPA RT

(*)

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HSUPA RT(*)

Tunnel

Node B
Transmission

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HSUPA NRT

RNC

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1.4 Iub Ethernet- IP RU20 feature RAN1499 active


RAN1449: Dual Iub for Flexi WCDMA BTS allows

simultaneous use of ATM and IP transport on the Iub by mapping part of

the Iub User Plane traffic to the IP transport network. The Hybrid Backhaul with Pseudowires
solution which involves an RNC site gateway used with RAN1063 is no longer needed,
given that IP over Ethernet interfaces are directly integrated in the RNC. The Iub Control
Plane is still carried over ATM transport as in RAS06. With Dual Iub, O&M traffic is carried
over ATM.

RAN74 Counters IP based Iub for Flexi WCDMA BTS

M568C0 OUT_DATA_IP_ROUTE
M568C1 IN_DATA_IP_ROUTE
M568C2 COMMITTED_BIT_RATE_IP_ROUTE
M568C3 SUM_RESERVED_RATE_IP_ROUTE
M568C4 MIN_RESERVED_RATE_IP_ROUTE
M568C5 MAX_RESERVED_RATE_IP_ROUTE
M568C6 SUM_IP_UDP_CONN_IP_ROUTE
M568C7 MIN_IP_UDP_CONN_IP_ROUTE

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1.4 M550 CAC AAL2 Path Measurements


2 VCs with 8250 cells per second per VC on 1 IMA group

max

min

M550 measurement to track allocation of AAL2 bandwidth in a VC


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1.4 M550 Path CAC (1 IMA Group, 2 VCs)


Configured Bandwidth

Free Bandwidth

Reserved Bandwidth

Measurement: M550 User Plane CAC Path


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1.4 M550 CAC Path Measurements (Iur interface, 1VC)

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1.4 M550 CAC AAL2 Path Measurements (Channel Ids)


2 VCs on 1 IMA group

M550 measurement to track allocation of AAL2 Channel Ids in a VC


Less than 248 Channel Identifiers used in each VC
(Rel99 call needs 2 CIds, HSDPA call needs 3 CIds on IuB interface)
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1.4 Counters for IuB/Iu-CS AAL2 user plane


measurements
M550 AAL2 CAC Path (IF/VP/VC object)
Guar Cell Rate : M550C0
Min Cell Rate : M550C2
Max Cell Rate : M550C3

Min/Max number of AAL2 connections : M550C5/6


Number of samples : M550C7
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1.4 Counters for IuB/Iu-CS AAL2 user plane


measurements
Example

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1.4 M550 AAL2 Path CAC Resource Measurements


M550 Counters (AAL2 Connections allocation) :

M550C4 SUM_AAL2_CONNECTIONS
M550C5 MIN_AAL2_CONNECTIONS
M550C6 MAX_AAL2_CONNECTIONS
M550C11 SUM_AAL2_CONNECTIONS_HSDPA
M550C12 MIN_AAL2_CONNECTION_HSDPA
M550C13 MAX_AAL2_CONNECTIONS_HSDPA
M550C7 NBR_SAMPLES (per measurement interval)

Numer of Channel Ids required


on IuB interface for specific service

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Service Type

NBR of CIds

RRC

AMR, Video call,


NRT Packet Call
(Rel99)

HSDPA,
HSPA call

1.5 Measuring DSP resources in RNC

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1.5 Measuring DSP resources in RNC- RU20


DSP Resource Measurements
DSP Service Statistics

M609

provides information on the resource allocation for each DSP service type. This measurement can be used, for
example, to evaluate the number of simultaneous HSDPA users in RNC level.

DSP State change

M612

state changes measurement counts the number of essential DSP restarts caused by the system or the operator. The
measurement counts DSP internal state changes from WO-RE to TE or from WO-EX to TE.

DSP Resource utilization

M615

provides statistical information on successful and failed resource allocations, and resource availability level in the
network element, measured on service pool level. Peaks are evaluated by measuring the lowest available capacity
during a reporting period, and the average counters give more accurate information on the usage of reserved DSP
services in the network element. The measurement data can be used to follow the service volume trends, to analyse
faults, and to plan the hardware configuration

DSP Load measurement

M617

DSP load such as memory usage, CPU load (in percentage), and the number of active processes. This information can
be used, for example, to check the load balance of each Data and Macro Diversity Processor Group (DMPG) unit and is
especially useful in troubleshooting situations in a live network.
The object of the measurement is a DMPG unit that is identified with a unit type and a unit index

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1.5 Measuring DSP resources in RNC- RU20

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1.5 DSP Processing Resources in RNC


Like WBTS, RNC allocates DSP resources to support calls.

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1.5 RNC Block Diagram

Distributed
SPRM sw

Centralized
SPRM sw

SPRM- Signal processing resource management


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not present in RNC2600

1.5 DSP Performance


When comparing the HSDPA
Accessibility KPI to the DSP
reservation success rate it can be
seen clearly that the problem in
HSDPA accessibility is caused by
the lack of DSP resources

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1.6 Measuring Radio Resource Management


Features

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1.6 Tracking RRM Features


Counters per RRM Feature available to check the performance

Radio Bearer downgrades


due to Throughput based Optimisation feature
due to Pre-Emption

Radio Bearer releases


due to Throughput based Optimisation feature
due to Pre-Emption

Overload Control
Transport Format Combination Control (TFCC)

Dynamic Link Optmisation (DyLO)


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2- TRAFFIC

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2- TRAFFIC
Radio Bearer downgrade causes

Matching RL setup failure rate


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Radio Bearer downgrade / release (Counters)


M1000C150
M1000C151
M1000C152
M1000C153

Radio Bearer downgrade by Pre-Emption due to AAL2 congestion


Radio Bearer downgrade by Pre-Emption due to WBTScongestion
Radio Bearer downgrade by Pre-Emption due to Interference congestion
Radio Bearer downgrade by Pre-Emption due to Spreading Code congestion

M1000C142 Radio Bearer downgrade by Enhanced Overload Control using TFCsubset


M1000C154 Radio Bearer downgrade by Enhanced Overload Control using RL reconfigurations
M1000C162
M1000C163
M1000C164
M1000C165

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Radio Bearer release by Pre-Emption due to AAL2congestion


Radio Bearer release by Pre-Emption due to WBTScongestion
Radio Bearer release by Pre-Emption due to Interference congestion
Radio Bearer release by Pre-Emption due to Spreading Code congestion

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UTRAN Capacity Resource constraints


The following UTRAN capacity resource constraints can trigger specific features to
cope with overload
Downlink power
Uplink interference
Downlink spreading code
BTS HW (WSP)
Iub AAL2 transmission
Priority based Scheduling (PBS) and overload control
feature counters:
M1000C145
M1000C146
M1000C147
M1000C148
M1000C157
M1000C158
M1000C159
M1000C160

Radio Bearer downgrade by PBSdue to AAL2congestion


Radio Bearer donwgrade by PBSdue to WBTScongestion
Radio Bearer downgrade by PBSdue to interference congestion
Radio Bearer downgrade by PBSdue to Spreading Code congestion
Radio Bearer release by PBSdue to AAL2congestion
Radio Bearer release by PBSdue to WBTScongestion
Radio Bearer release by PBSdue to Interference congestion
Radio Bearer release by PBSdue to Spreading Code congestion

M1000C142 Radio Bearer downgrade by Enhanced Overload Control using TFCsubset


M1000C154 Radio Bearer downgrade by Enhanced Overload Control using RL reconfigurations
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Modification of user bitrates with RL Reconfiguration


AAL2 CAC
Feature trigger
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare

DCH downgrade

NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready


AAL2 resource change req
AAL2 resource change resp
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
RRC: Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

M1005C133 RL RECONF SYNCH FOR DCH MOD DUE TO DYN LINK OPT ON SRNC
M1005C142 RL RECONF SYNCH FOR DCH MOD ON SRNC DUE TO CM
M1005C153 RL RECONF PREP SYNCH FOR DCH DEL DUE TO PRIORITY BASED SCHEDULING
M1005C154 RL RECONF PREP SYNCH FOR DCH DELETION DUE TO PREEMPTION
M1005C156 RL RECONF PREP SYNCH FOR DCH DEL DUE ENHANCED OVERLOAD CONTROL
M1005C158 RL RECONF PREP SYNCH FOR DCH MOD DUE PBS
DOWNGRADING
M1005C159
RL RECONF PREP SYNCH FOR DCH MOD DUE PRE-EMPTION DOWNGRADING
M1005C239 RL RECONF PREP SYNCH FOR DCH MOD DUE THROUGHPUT BASED OPTIMISATION
M1005C240 RL RECONF PREP SYNCH FOR DCH DEL DUE THROUGHPUT BASED OPTIMISATION
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Multi-RAB measurement example RU 20

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New KPI in RU20

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Exercise 1
Please check the following capacity areas
1. DL Power, UL Interference (Rx level in the cell)
2. Downlink code tree occupation (CC)
3. WBTS Baseband Processing Resources (CE)
4. IuB / AAL2 Resources
Any findings linking to capacity bottleneck ?
If so, what could be the solution (optimization)?

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Thank You !

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