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SP.

ENTROPY,S
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SP. ENTHALPY, H

Need of efficiency & performance monitoring :


High cost of installation of new power plant
Rs. 3.5 to 4 Crore /MW installation
+Rs. 1.5 to 2 Crore /MW for T&D
Increased plant performance leads to increased plant
availability and vice versa
Maximising generation with minimum generation cost
For increasing station performance main areas :
Planned Maintenance Loss
Thermal Efficiency Factors
Plant Load factor
Forced outages
Plant Availability Factor
Optimising terminal conditions of the unit

MS parameters
Rejection 2
Parameters

Areas of concentration for increasing Efficiency :


Heat rate of Turbine
Boiler Efficiency
DM water Make-up
Specific Oil Consumption
Excess air
Condenser Back Pressure

Basic Concepts of Efficiency :


Overall Station Efficiency = Output
Input
Energy Sent Out (KW)
= Fuel Burnt (Kg) * Calorific Value of Fuel
Rankine Cycle

B =

Fuel Burnt (Kg) * Calorific Value


of Fuel (Kcal/Kg)
Ms*h3-Mf*h1
* 100
Mc * C.V.

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TEMPERATURE, T

Boiler Efficiency
((Steam Supplied in Kgs *
Total heat in superheated steam) Total heat of feed water))

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ENTROPY,S
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Heat Balance Diagram Showing Losses :


100

HEAT INPUT

PERCENTAGE

BOILER LOSSES
10 - 13 %

CONDENSER LOSSES
45 - 49 %
GENERATOR LOSS
2-4%
USEFUL HEAT OUTPUT
34 - 39 %

Weight of Air required for Combustion :


(i)

Carbon

C + O2 = CO2
12 + 32 = 44

(ii)

1 + 8/3 = 11/3 O2 = 8/3 C --------- (a)

Oxygen required = 8/3 times wt. Of Carbon

Hydrogen

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
4 + 32 = 36
1 + 8 = 9 O2 = 8H

-----------(b)

Oxygen required = 8 times the wt. Of Hydrogen


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Weight of Air required for Combustion : contd...


(iii)

Sulphur

S + O2 = SO2
32 + 32 = 64

(iv)

1+ 1=2

O2 = 1 S --------- (c)

Oxygen required = Same as wt. of Sulphur


Combining formula (a), (b) & (c)
Oxygen required / gm of fuel = 8/3 C + 8H + S ------- (d)

(v)

Assuming all the Oxygen in the fuel will combine with


Hydrogen in the fuel the actual amount of Hydrogen
requiring air is (H - O/8)

(vi)

Oxygen in gm/gm of fuel = 8/3C + 8(H - O/8) + S


Air in gm / gm of fuel = 4.31[ 8/3C + 8(H-O/8) + S ]
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Excess Air requirement :

PERCENTAGE HEAT LOSS

Optimum Excess air = 20 % of Stoichiometric (perfect) air for


combustion

40

30

20

MINIMUM LOSS
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EXCESS AIR FOR MINIMUM LOSS


0
0

20

40

60

80

PERCENTAGE EXCESS AIR

100

Boiler Efficiency :
Direct method

Boiler Efficiency =

( Enthalpy of Steam - Enthalpy of Feed water)


* Steam flow
Fuel Burnt (Kg) * Calorific Value of Fuel

Indirect or losses method


Boiler Efficiency =

100 % - Total Loss in Percentage

Boiler Losses
Dry Flue Gas Loss
Wet Flue Gas Loss
Due to moisture in fuel
Due to Hydrogen in fuel
Unburnt Carbon Loss

Rejection Loss in Ash


Radiation Loss
Unaccounted Loss
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Boiler Efficiency :
L1

= DRY FLUE GAS LOSS = {100 * Qa * Cpg * (Tg Ta)}


(Wg * GCV)

Qa = TOTAL AIR FLOW IN Kg/Hr


Tg = FLUE GAS TEMP. AT ESP OUTLET

Tr = REFERENCE AMBIENT TEMP. IN

Wg = COAL FLOW RATE IN Kg/Hr


Cpg = SPECIFIC HEAT OF FLUE GAS = 0.246 Kcal
GCV = GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF FED COAL IN Kcal /Kg

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Boiler Efficiency :
L2

= LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN FUEL = {100* M* Wg* ( hg - ha)}


Wg * GCV

hg = SP. ENTHALPY OF VAPOUR AT AIRHEATER OUTLET IN Kcal/Kg(FOR AIR

ha = SP. ENTHALPY OF WATER AT AIRHEATER INLET IN Kcal/Kg (FOR AIR)


M = MOISTURE CONTENT IN FED COAL IN % OF WEIGHT

L3

= LOSS DUE TO HYDROGEN IN FUEL = {9 * 100* H* Wg* ( hg - ha)}


Wg * GCV

H = HYDROGEN CONTENT IN FED COAL IN % OF WEIGHT


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Boiler Efficiency :
L4

= LOSS DUE TO UNBURNT IN ASH = {100* Wg * U * A * K


Wg * GCV

U = WEIGHTED AVERAGE OF UNBURNT CONTENT IN %


A = ASH CONTENT IN FED COAL IN %
K = C. V. OF CARBON BURNT TO CO2 IN Kcal/Kg = 8139
L5

= DUE TO HEAT REJECTED IN ASH


= [ 100* Cpg * A * {0.1*(Tba Ta) + 0.9*(Tg-Ta)}]
GCV

Tba = BOTTOM ASHING TEMP. IN

L6

= RADIATION LOSS = 0.8 (ASSUMED)

L7

= UNACCOUNTD LOSS = 0.647 ( DESIGN FIGURE )

= 100 [ L1 +L2 +L3 +L4 +L5 +L6 +L7]

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Other parameters affecting Boiler Efficiency :


CONTROL OF BLOW DOWN AND MAKE UP

MINIMUM LOSS

AUXILIARY POWER CONSUMPTION


OPTIMIZATION OF OIL CONSUMPTION
AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE AND TRAMP AIR TO BOILER

PERCENTAGE HEAT LOSS

40

HEAT LOSS DUE TO UNBURNT


HEAT LOSS DUE TO FLUE GAS

30

HEAT LOSS DUE TO UNBURNT GAS


TOTAL HEAT LOSS

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10

0
0

20

40

60

80

PERCENTAGE EXCESS AIR

100

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HEAT RATE :
TURBINE HEAT RATE = Qs * (Hs - Hf)
Eg
Qs = STEAM FLOW AT TURBINE INLET IN KG/HR
Hs = TOTAL HEAT OF STEAM AT TURBINE INLET IN KCAL/KG
Hf = TOTAL HEAT OF FEED WATER AT ECONOMISER INLET IN KCAL/KG
Eg = NET LOAD GENERATED IN KW

TURBINE EFFICIENCY =

PLANT HEAT RATE =

860 * 100
HEAT RATE

860 *100
TURBINE EFF. *BOILER EFF.
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CONDENSER PERFORMANCE :
EFFICIENCY = (H1-H2) / H1

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p4

= (T1-

T2) / T1

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Pressure, bar abs.

DELTA T = CW O/L - CW I/L


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TERMINAL TEMP. DIFF. (TTD) =


EXH. HOOD - CW O/L

p1
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CONDENSER VACUUM =
BAROMETRIC PR. - BACK PR.

4
p2
p3
0
0

Volume, m3/kg
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CONDENSER PERFORMANCE :
LIMITATIONS IN REDUCING BACK PRESSURE :
INCREASED CW PUMPING POWER

HIGH LEAVING LOSS


LEAVING LOSS SQR (VELOCITY) SQR (SP. VOL)
1 / SQR (BACK PRESSURE)

REDUCED CONDENSATE TEMP.

WETNESS OF STEAM
EVERY 1 % INCREASE IN WETNESS
= 1 % DECREASE IN EFFICIENCY OF ASSOCIATED STAGE
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PUMP PERFORMANCE & MONITORING


Terms used in pumping system :

A : Potential head/geometric head/ static


head = head due to height + head due to pressure = H
+ P/D*g
where , H= height of water column
P = pressure on the surface of water in the tank
D = water density at a particular temp.
g = acceleration due to gravity

B : Kinetic head / dynamic head = V2/2*g


where , V= velocity of liquid in the pipe line
This head is proportional to flow rate(Q).
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C : Frictional head = 4* f*L*V2 / 2*g*D


where ,

f= pipe surface roughness


L= length of pipe
V= flow velocity
D= inner dia. of pipe
g= gravitational constant

D : Gross total head = potential head + kinetic


head + losses

E : Net positive suction head (NPSH)


NPSH) available = (P - Pv)* 2.31/ sp. Gravity -losses +/- Z
Where , P= absolute pressure at liquid surface
Pv = vapour pressure of liquid at pumping temp.
Losses = kinetic head + frictional head +
entrance loss
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Z= static elevation from liquid level in suction

NPSH) available

NPSH

NPSH)required

Cavitation starts

FLOW RATE Q
As a general rule the NPSH ) available should be 30% higher than
the required NPSH at the operating point.
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NOTE : If NPSH) available approaches to zero than there will be


severe cavitation in the pump.

IMPROVEMENT IN NPSH AVAILABLE OF BFP


1:Raise the deaerator height for more static head.
2: Incorporate slow speed booster pump to have lower
NPSH) required.
3: Keep dp across the suction filter less than 0.5 kg/cm2.

IMPROVEMENT IN NPSH AVAILABLE OF CEP


1: Use larger size suction piping with larger radius bend instead
of elbows.
2: Use long radius suction bell mouths in case of vertical pumps.
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