You are on page 1of 42

TRAINING ON STEEL CHIMNEY

Summary of Contents
Definition
Terminology
Types of Chimney
Sizing of Chimney ( Mechanical Aspects)
Materials
Loading and load combination
Design Consideration
DESIGN CALCULATION ( Structural Aspects)

Calculation

of Static Wind Load


Calculation of Dynamic Wind load
Check for Strake provision
Calculation of Earthquake load

TRAINING ON STEEL CHIMNEY .


Summary of Contents contd...

Miscellaneous Components
Erection Tolerances
Inspection and Maintenance.
Minimum requirement of IS : 6533 ( tabulated summary)
Refractory & Insulation

DEFINATION
CHIMNEY IS

REQUIRED TO CARRY VERTICALLY AND


DISCHARGE TO THE ATMOSPHERE , THE GASEOUS
PRODUCT OF COMBUSTION , CHEMICAL WASTE
GAS , EXHAUST GASES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE
GAS BY CREATING A DRAFT.
NORMALLY THE STRIGHT PORTION OF CHIMNEY IS
CALLED AS STACK

TERMINOLGY

BASE PLATE :- HORIZONTAL STEEL PLATE AT THE BASE OF THE


CHIMNEY
LIGHTENING ARRESTOR :- FOR PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTENING
FOR STACK & SURROUNDING EQUIPMENT
AVIATION WARNING LAMP
COWL :- CONICAL/ DISHED CAP AT THE TOP OF CHIMNEY TO
MINIMIZE ENTRY OF RAIN WATER
FLUE GAS ANALYZER LOCATION:- 20 DIA ABOVE LAST GAS ENTRY
POINT
& 8 DIA BELOW STACK EXIT
DRAIN AT STACK BASE
EXIT CONE :- CONICAL PIECE AT EXIT TO PROVIDE REQ. GAS
VELOCITY

TERMINOLGY...

HEIGHT OF THE CHIMNEY:- DIST. B/W GROUND LEVEL TO TOP OF


CHIMNEY
EFFLUX VELOCITY:- SPEED OF THE GASES AT THE TOP.
GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION:- CONC. OF AIR POLLUTANTS IN
MG/M3 IN THE BREATHING ZONE.
FLARE:- BOTTOM PORTION OF CHIMNEY IN THE FORM OF A CONE.
REQ. ABOVE 40 M HT TO ACHIEVE BETTER STABILITY.
STRAKE VANE :- AERODYNAMIC STABILIZER TO REDUCE WIND
EXCITED
OSCILLATION. HT SHALL BE 0.1 TO 0.12 TIMES DIA,
PITCH SHALL BE 5* DIA & OVERALL HT SHALL EXTEND 1/3RD OF
STACK HT FROM TOP.
PAINTERS TROLLEY: PROVISION GIVEN FOR PAINTING OF CHIMNEY .

TERMINOLGY...

ACTUAL DRAFT: SUCTION PRODUCED AT BASE OF CHIMNEY


DRAFT LOSS: DROP OF STATIC PRESSURE OF GAS BETWEEN TWO
POINTS IN A SYSTEM
FORCED DRAFT: SYSTEM WHICH MAINTAIN THE PRODUCTS OF
COMBUSTION , WHEN FLOWN TO OR THROUGH AT A PRESSURE ABOVE
ATMOSPHERIC
INDUCED DRAFT : AT A PRESSURE PROGRESSIVELY INCREASING SUB
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
NATURAL DRAFT: DRAFT CREATED IN THE BOILER DUE TO CHIMNEY
ONLY.
NOMINAL DIA . OF CHIMNEY: INTERNAL DIA AT THE TOP MOST OPENING
OF THE STEEL SHELL

TYPES OF CHIMNEY

SELF SUPPORTING STEEL CHIMNEY

GUYED TYPE STEEL CHIMNEY

ARE BETTER WHERE SUPPORTING CAPABILITY OF SOIL IS LOW


INVOLVES REGULAR MAINTENTTIONOF GUY WIRES AND ANCHOR SUPPORT
DIFFICULTY FINDING OUT ANCHORS POINTS ON GROUND

RCC CHIMNEY

STEEL CHIMNEY ARE IDEALLY SUITED FOR PROCESS WROK


FOR SHORT HEAT UP PERIOD & LOW THERMAL CAPACITY
IT ENCOURGES ACID CONDENSATION , CORROSION

EXPENSIVE UP TO 65 MT. HEIGHT

BRICK CHIMNEY

SUITABLE FOR CLAY INDUSTIRES


REGULAR MAINTENTTION

SIZING OF CHIMNEY

INSIDE DIAMTER OF CHIMNEY


D=

Where

4Q/( V)

Q = quantity of gas m3 /sec


V = Velocity of the flue gas at exit of chimney
- shall not be exceeded 30 m /sec
- normally 15-20 m/sec

HEIGHT OF CHIMNEY
- Height of chimney shall satisfy the requirement of draft( Actual draft = Required Draft)
- Influence of aerodynamic shadow
- Considering dispersion of pollutants

SIZING OF CHIMNEY.
DRAFT LOSS METHOD
FOLLWING DRAFT LOSS SHALL BE CONSIDERED IN THE SYSTEM ( BOILER /POWER PLANT)
A) Draft loss through chimney
B) Draft loss through duct
C) Draft loss through system
D) Draft loss due to sudden change
E) Draft loss due to bend
F ) DRFAT CREATED BY CHIMNEY = Dc = H( a -g )

where

H= height of chimney in meter


a = Density of air at ambient kg/m3

g = Density of gas at avg. temp/pressure and pressure in kg /m3


HEIGHT CAN BE CALCULATED AS :
DRFT CREATED BY STACK IN (F) = DRFT LOSS ( A TO E) + DRFAT CREATED BY ID /FD FAN

SIZING OF CHIMNEY.
THE HIGHT OF CHIMNEY SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN THE HEIGHT OF THE
ZONE OF TURBULENT AIR LAYERS FORMED DUE TO UNEVEN HEIGHTS OF
BUILDINGS.
PLEASE REFER HANDOUTS ATTACHED. FOR IS :6533 ANNEXURE-A
HEIGHT OF AREDYNAMIC SHADOW:
FOR TYPE-1
HS =0.36 B +2.5 Hb
HS = 0.36 B + 1.7 Hb
HS = 0.36 ( B+X) + Hb
where
Hs = height in meter of AD shadow
H= height of chimney
Hb = height of buildings in meter

SIZING OF CHIMNEY...

CONSIDERING DISPERSION OF POLLUTION


Height of the Chimney for Indian condition ,pollution control board norm
H = 14(Q)^0.3
where Q = SO2 flow in Kg/hr = 2* Fuel Flow* (%S in Fuel)/100
Also H=A*M*F*D/(8*C*V) , This is for dispersed pollutants , ground
level 0.5 mg/m3 concentration.Ref IS 6533 Annex B
For foreign installations, height of the chimney is generally specified in
tender as at least 5/10 m taller than tallest building/Platform in near by
area say150m radius. However, we would ask customer to specify height
based on local rules. On Nat gas units it is usually 30 m, but this
assumption is specified in our offer
FINAL CHIMNEY HEIGHT = MAX. HEIGHT OBTAINED ABOVE THREE METHODS.

MATERIALS

PLATES & SECTIONS


Carbon steel to respective code (IS 2062 for IS std. , SA 36 as per ASME
etc.): up to a temperature of shell 425 Deg C
SA 387 Gr. 11(Alloy Steel) for Temp > 425 Deg C
For sub zero ambient temperatures use impact tested steel ( A36 / A516
GR 60,70 / Alloy steel )
When temp. and acid conc.. Expected to be more we can use Stainless
Steel plates ( ASTM type 316)***
BOLTS & NUTS

It depends also as per code ( Is 1363 , IS 3640 as IS code ,BS4190,BS 4360 etc)

.REFRACTORY & INSULATION


As per ASTM and respective standard matl w.r.t design requirement

LOADING & LOAD COMBINATION

THE LOADS ACTING ON CHIMNEY ARE


DEAD LAODS:

WEIGHT OF CHIMNEY+PERMANENT FIXTURE SUCH AS LADDERS ,PALTFORM


, BAFFLES, GUYS (IF ANY)
WEIGHT OF LINING ( INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL) SHALL BE TREATED AS
SEPARATE LOAD FOR THE PURPOSE OF LOAD COMBINATION
THE FLUE LINING SHALL NOT BE ASSUMED TO INCREASE THE SECTION
MODULUS OF THE SHELL NOT RESIST OVER TURNING DUE TO LATERAL
BENDING ETC

IMPOSED LOAD

IMPOSED LOADS ON PLATFORM = 300 Kg/cm2

LOADING & LOAD COMBINATION.

WIND LOADS ( IS 875)

EARTHQUAKE LOAD

STATIC WIND LOAD CALCULATION


DYNAMIC WIND LOAD CALCULATION
GUST WIND LOAD CALCULATION
Unless otherwise IS 1893 shall be followed.

LOAD COMBINATION

DEAD LOAD +WIND LOAD


DEAD LOAD + EARTHQUAKE LOAD
DEAD LOAD +LOAD DUE TO LINING +IMPOSED LOAD +WIND LOAD
DEAD LOAD +LOAD DUE TO LINING +IMPOSED LOAD +EARTH QUAKE LOAD
ANY OTHER CONDITON MENTIONED BY CUSTOMER

DESIGN CONSIDERTAION
PROVISION COVERED IN STRL DESIGN(IS 800)
MINIMUM THICKNESS
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION
ALLOWANCE FOR CORROSION
ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS IN CIRCULAR SHELL
DUE TO DIRECT LOAD AND BENDING MOMENTS
STRESSES DUE TO EARTHQUAKE

BASIC DIMENSION

Basic dimensions are HEIGHT AND CLEAR DIAMETER as per mechanical design.

Clear diameter is nominal dia. Of the shell for unlined or partially lined chimney .

For fully lined , clear diameter is the lined inside dia at top.

Clear diameter shall be minimum 500 mm.

If technological reasons ,the dia is less than 500 mm shall be reduced at top
providing constricting passage locally at the top.

For height more than 40 meter should have flare at the bottom.

Minimum height of the flare = 1/3 of the total height of the chimney.

Minimum outside diameter of unlined chimney at top =1/20th of the height of the
chimney.

Minimum outside diameter of the flared at base =1.6 times of o/s dia. at top.

MINIMUM THICKNESS

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF SHELL =CALCULATED


THICKNESS DUE TO STRESS AND
DEFLECTION+CORROSION ALLOWANCE.
IT SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 6 mm
ALSO NOT LESS THAN 1/500 OF OUTSIDE DIA. OF THE
CHIMNEY.
MINMIUM THK OF FLANGES JOINTING TO CHIMNEY SHALL
BE 6 MM
SUPPORTING STEEL WORK: SHALL BE 8MM MINIMUM FOR
HOT ROLLED

ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION

MAXIMUM DEFLECTION AT THE TOP OF THE CHIMNEY


PRODUCED BY WIND LOAD ONLY WITHOUT TAKING
DYNAMIC FACTOR SHALL NOT BE GREATER THAN

h/200
WHERE h= UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT OF THE CHIMNEY

ALLOWANCE FOR CORROSION

TOTAL CORROSION ALLOWANCE ON SHELL = EXTRENAL


CORROSION ALLOWANCE + INTERNAL CORROSION ALLOWANCE
TO BE ADDED TO CALCULATED THICKNESS DUE TO STRESS &
DEFLECTION
REFER TABLE-1 FOR TYPICAL CORROSION ALLOWANCE WITH
RESPECT TO APPLICATION AND LIFE PERIOD
( IS 6533 PART-2 TABLE-1)

MAXIMUM PERMISSBLE STRESS


(IS 6533 PART-2)

THIS IS THE ALLOWABLE STRESS FOR IS 2062 MATL AS


PER TABLE-3 OF IS 6533 AND AS PER ANNEXURE-C
OTHER MATL AS PER BS CODE , ASME MATL. SHALL BE
FOUND OUT FORM RESPECTIVE CODE.
ALSO CAN BE DETERMIND BY MULTIPLYING THE FACTOR
FY/fy
WHERE FY=YIELD STRESS OF THAT MATL.
fy= YIELD STRESS OF IS 2062 =250 MPA

ALLOWANCE ON TEMPERATURE

THE PERMISSBLE STRESS GIVEN IN ABOVE AS PER AMBIENT

SHALL BE CORRECTED TO MULTIPLY THE TEMP. COEFFICINT FOR


STRESS AT THAT TEMPERATURE.

TABLE -4 Temperature coefficient ,Kt

0-200
Kt 1

Temperature
250
300
0.75
0.67

350
0.6

(Clause - 7.81)

400
0.5

Note:-Intermediate values shall be linearly interpolated.

INCREASES INSTRESS

FOR LOAD COMBINATION INVOLVING EARTH QUAKE , THE


PERMISSBLE STRESSES MAY BE EXCEEDED BY 33 .5 %
HIGH ( AS PER IS 6533 cl. 7.10)
THE PERMISSBLE( ALLOWABLE) STRESSES MAY BE
EXCEEDED BY 25% IF WIND FORCES INVOLVED ( BS 4076
CL.4.3.3.6)

ALLOWANCE FOR LARGE OPEINIGN IN SHELL

FOR INLETS DUCT OPENING , INSPECTION DOOR , LARGE OPENING


SHALL BE CUT ON CHIMNEY SHELL.
A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FOR THE SHELL SHALL BE CHECKED
CONSIDERING REDUCTION OF SECTION MODULUS.
FOR THIS SHORT OF SECTION MODULUS , EXTRA STIFFENER SHALL
BE PROVIDED FOR STRESS POINT OF VIEW.

FOUNDATION

THE FOUNDATION SHALL BE DESIGNED FOR THE WORST


COMBINATION OF LOADS , SUCH THAT RESULTING
PRESSURE ON THE SUB SOIL BY CONSIDERING DEAD
WEIGHT , MOVEMENT AND HORIZONTAL FORCES, IS
LIMITED TO SAFE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SOIL.

DESIGN CALCULATION

CALCULATION OF STATIC WIND LOAD

BASIC WIND SPEED : SPEED OF WIND APPLICABLE UP TO 10 METER HEIGHT


( Category -2) ABOVE MEAN GROUND LEVEL IN AN OPEN TERRAIN & HAVE
BEEN WORKED OUT FOR A 50 YEARS RETURN PERIOD
DESIGN WIND VELOCITY AT ANY HEIGHT (z):- Vz = Vb*K1 * K2 * K3 (as Per IS 875 Pt-3)

Vb= Regional basic wind speed

( from Fig-1 or as per customer data)

K1= Probability factor ( Risk coefficient) ( Table-1 of IS 875)


( With respect to Class of Structural)
K2= Terrain & Ht and structural size factor(Table 2 of IS 875)
(Varies w.r.t category 1 to 4)
K3 = Topography factor

STATIC WIND PRESSURE AT A HEIGHT z :- q (z) =0.6 Vz 2

CALCULATION OF STATIC WIND LOAD.

TO DETERMINE THE WIND FORCES ACTING AT DIFFERENT HEIGHT OF


CHIMNEY , THE CHIMNEY SHALL BE DIVIDED IN TO NOS. OF ZONES SUCH THAT

THE NO. OF ZONES SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN THREE


EACH ZONE HEIGHT SHALL NOT EXCEED 10 MTERE

STATIC WIND FORCE/LOAD ACTING AT THE MID POINT OF K TH ZONE


PST,K = C x qkx hk x dk

Where , C = Shape factor for chimney , 0.7 for circular cross section without strakes
1.2 for circular cross section with strake
qk =Static wind pressure at the mid point of the K TH zone in Pa
hk = Height of KTH zone strip in meter
dk = External Diameter of Chimney of KTH zone in meter

CALCULATION OF DYNAMIC WIND LOAD

DYNAMIC LOAD IS DUE TO PULSATION OF THRUST CAUSED BY WIND.


FOR SELF SUPPORTED CHIMNEY , THE DYNAMIC LOAD WILL BE
CONSIDERED IF
PERIOD OF NATURAL OSCILLATION OF THE CHIMNEY EXCEEDS 0.25
sec.( IS : 6533 CLAUSE NO.: 8.3.1)
THE NATURAL FREQUENCY, FIRST MODE SHALL BE CALCULATED BY
DIVIDING IN TO NO OF ZONES CONSIDERING VARYING DIAMETER AND
THICKNESS
The frequency f = 1
2

g (mx)

1/2

(mx2)

Where,
m = Mass of the zone including lining in kg
x = Deflection of the same zone due to force equal to gravity acting its mass
normally at the mass center with the base fixed and top free , in mtere
g = rate of gravitation acceleration = 9.8 m/ s2

CALCULATION OF DYNAMIC WIND


LOAD...

The dynamic force acting at the center of the j th zone of the chimney in the 1st mode of natural oscillation ( Up
to 80 meter tall chimney)
Pdyn, 1j = Mj 1 1J

Where
Mj = Mass of the j th zone in kg concentrated at center
1 = Dynamic coefficient as per Table 5 of IS : 6533

1 = T1 Vb / 1200 and Table-5


= coefficient which takes care of the space correlation of wind pulsation
( w.r.t height and dynamic coefficient) - Table -7 of IS:6533
1J = Deduced acceleration in m/sec2
r

= Y IJ Y1k Pst,k mk
k=1

Y1k2 k Mk

k=1

Where
Mj = Mass of the K th zone in kg
Y 1J , Y1k = Relative ordinates of mode ( refer example)
r = nos. of zone
mk = coefficient of pulsation as per Table-6 of IS: 6533

CALCULATION OF DYNAMIC WIND


LOAD...

TOTAL DESIGN LATERAL FORCE Pk = P ST,K +

TOTAL BENDING MOMENT

TOTAL DEFLECTION

Mk = M ST,K +

Yk = YST,K +

(Pdyn.k)2

(Mdyn.k)2

(Ydyn.k)2

GUST LOAD CALCULATION

METHOD OF CALCULATING LOAD ALONG WIND BY USING GUST FACTOR


METHOD( IT IS NOT A FULLY MATURED METHOD)
GUST WIND LOAD = F z = Cf * Ae* pz *G
where

Fz = along wind load on the stack at any height z


Cf =force coefficient
Ae = Effective frontal area at the height of z
pz = Design pressure = 0.6 Vz 2 ( where Vz= Vb*k1*k2*k3) k1,k2 as per above
k3 = as per Table-33 of IS 875)
G = gust factor ( peak load/ mean laod)
=formulation given on IS 875 and as per Fig -8,9,10,11 of IS: 875

EARTHQUAKE/SEISMIC LOAD( IS:1893( Pr-I)


DESIGN SEISMIC BASE SHEAR :THE TOTAL DESIGN LATERAL FORCE OR DESIGN SEISMIC BASE SHEAR (VB) = Ah* W
Where,
Ah - design horizontal acceleration spectrum value as per 6.4.2 ,
Using the fundamental natural period ta as per 7.6 in the considered direction of vibration;
W- seismic weight of the building is the sum of the seismic weight of the all floor
THE APPROXIMATE FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL PERIOD OF VIBRATION (TA), IN SECONDS TA =
0.085(H)0.75 in sec.
WHERE H IS THE HEIGHT OF THE STRUCTURE

The design horizontal seismic co-efficient Ah for a structure shall be determined by the following expression:
( Ah) = (Z I Sa/g)/2R
Where
Z = Zone factor given in table 2 ( is for max. considered Earthquake and service of life)
I = Importance factor
-table 6 ( Functional use of structural)
R = response reduction factor -table 7(Depending on ductile or brittle deformation)
Sa/g = average response acceleration co efficient for rock (or) soil sites as given by Fig-2
This fig-2 is 5 % damping spectra for concrete.
For any other material the factor given in Table-3 of IS 1893 shall be multiplied to Sa/g value

CALCULATION OF BASE PLATE .STIFFNER


PLATE AND ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE
FOUNDATION LOADING ( EXPAMPLE)
Max.Shear due to wind
Max.Moment due to wind
Max.Shear due to seismic force
Addl.Shear due to platform load & duct load

=
=
=
=

68.17 Kn
2114 kN-m
301 kN
29.15 kN

Total Max. Shear due Self .Weight & Seismic


Total bending moment due to Seismic

=
=

330.15 kN
12910 kN-m

THE SEISMIC GOVERNS THE DESIGN

CALCULATION OF BASE PLATE .STIFFNER PLATE AND


ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE.
DESIGN OF BASE PLATE
Mean dia of stack
=
4.0m
Max.Compressive stress per unit length Of circumference, fc
= ((4 *M)/( D2))+(Ws/( D)
= ((4*12910)/(3.14*4*4))+(1095/3.14*4)) =
1115.05 kN / m
Provide 40.0cm as width of base Plate.
Bearing Pressure below base plate
=
1115/0.4
=
2787.5
kN / Sq.m
Base plate is designed as Gusseted base using
"Theory of plates and shells by Roark's Formulae for Stress and Strain".
Bending moment for a plate rigidly held on three sides and other side is free. LOADING Uniformly
distributed load(q)
=
2787.5
kN / Sq.m
Now from table-26 of Roark's book,
a
=
400mm
b
=
295mm
a/b = 1.36
The maximum bending moment per unit width of plate occur at middle of fixed edge.
Max ,

2
2
=
(1*q*b )/ t
=
0.61*2.88*((295)^2)/(32^2) =
149.30
<165N/Sq.m 32 mm thickness of base plate is
O.K

CALCULATION OF BASE PLATE .STIFFNER PLATE AND


ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE.
DESIGN OF STIFFENER PLATE
Max. Load on stiffener plate
Max.Bending moment

otherwise

=
2788*0.295 = 822.46 KN
=
((2788*0.295)*0.336*0.336)/2
=
46.43
KN.m
F=
M/Z
Z=( t * l 2)/6 = (t*336*336) /6
F= 46.43 /Z
165 =(46.43*10^6*6)/(t*336*336)

t (Required) =
Prov. 16 mm stiffener plate.

14.96mm

CALCULATION OF BASE PLATE .STIFFNER PLATE AND


ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE...
DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT
n is the no. of bolts =
(4*m/n*D1)-(Ws/n)
D1 is the PCD of Base plate

48

Max. Force in one anchor bolt

4.50m

Max. Force in one anchor bolt

( 90% of self weight is considered) ((4*12910)/(48*4.5))-(0.9*(1095/48))


Tensile capacity of M56 Anchor Bolt
295.41 KN
>
218.54
KN
Hence o.k
Total length of anchor plate
=
1375 Bonding capacity
KN
>
218.54
KN

218.54

(3.14/4)*5.6*5.6*0.8*120*1.25(

1925
=

Embedded length of anchor plate


(3.14*7*1375*5.6*1.325)/1000

=
KN

=
224.25

TYPICAL BASE PLATE ,STIFFNER PLATE AND


ANCHOR DETAILS

CHECK FOR STRAKE PROVISION

STROUHAL CRTICAL VELOCITY

Vcr = 5 D X f
Where

f= natural frequency in Hz
D = diameter of chimney at top in meter

Strake is to be provided for avoiding any resonance


Strake is not required if

the critical velocity is with in the range 0.5 to 0.8 times of design wind
velocity for lined / partial lined chimneys
the critical velocity is with in the range 0.33 to 0.8 times of design wind
velocity for unlined chimneys

MISCELLANEOUS COMPONENTS

INSPECTION DOOR
Suitable door for access near the base shall be used for internal Inspection and ash removal
( min. Size: 500 mm wide x 800 mm high)
PLATFORM ,HANDRAIL & LADDER

For erection , service of warning lamps ,earthling,inspection ,sampling ,approach to other instrument connection if
any. (minimum width =800 mm)

STOOL WITH GUSSETS

This is supporting chair given on the base of chimney to holding the stack with foundation.
The minimum thickness of gusset shall be 8 mm

LIGHTENING ARRESTOR

Shall be provided with lightening Arrestor in accordance with IS 2309

AVIATION /WARNING LIGHT

Suitable Aviation lamp to be provided. Recommended nos and position of the same depending upon the height of
chimney as per fig -4

BAFFLE PLATE
When there are two or more breach opening or flue entering , baffles plate to be provided to properly direct the gases without
interfering with each other.
These baffles plate shall be properly insulated.

ERECTION TOLERANCE

FABRICATION AND ERECTION SHALL BE AS PER IS:800


VARIATION IN THE ECCETRICITY OF THE AXIA OF CHIMNEY FROM VERTICAL
=1/1000 OF THE HIEGHT ,AT THAT PARTICULAR SECTION. & MAX. 25 mm

NO GASKET SHALL BE USED IN JOINING FLANGES.


WELDING OF SHELL PLATES SHALL BE AS PER IS : 816

NDT IF ANY SHALL BE MUTUALLY AGREEMENT WITH CUSTOMER.

INSPECTION & MAINTENTANCE

In case of uninstalled steel chimney , the thickness of shell shall be


checked by either ultrasonic or by drill testing
For lined chimney should be inspected internally that whether refractory
is still serviceable condition or not
Flanges should be inspected to see I\f there is a build up of rust

x
a

IS 6533 Code Requirements

Description
IS 6533 CODE
Minimum clear flue dia for lined
1
500 mm inside Dia
stack
1/3 rd height for stack ht >/= 40 m to provide better
2 Flare requirement
stability
1/20 th of cylindrical portion for unlined,
3 Minimum OD of stack at top
1/25 th of cylindrical portion for lined
Minimum OD at base for flared
4
1.6 times diameter at top
stack
based on( stress + deflection ) analysis+corrosion
allowance
5 Minimum shell thickness
Should not be < 6 mm
Should not be <1/500 of Dia at that location
6 Allowable deflection at top
height of stack /200
dead load + wind load
7 Load combinations for analysis dead + earthquake
dead load+lining+imposed (platform) + wind load
dead load+lining+imposed (platform) + earthquake
For this combination allowable
load
stress, 33% more allowed
8 Dynamic analysis/ Resonance Check

REFRACTORY & INSULATION

Linings:- 1.Fire Brick Lining (Alumina 28-32 %) Upto 1200 C


2. Acid Resistant Bricks :- For Highly Corrosive Gases
3. Castable Gunniting :- Low dense castable
External Insulation:- To Minimize Temp Drop & improve
stack shell metal temperature
Painting : Internal & External corrosion resistance to suit
gas temp
1. Inorganic Zinc Silicate followed by Heat resistant
Silicone Aluminum for temp > 250 C
2. Heat Resistant Aluminum Paint.