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chimney calculation thermal power plant

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Summary of Contents

Definition

Terminology

Types of Chimney

Sizing of Chimney ( Mechanical Aspects)

Materials

Loading and load combination

Design Consideration

DESIGN CALCULATION ( Structural Aspects)

Calculation

Calculation of Dynamic Wind load

Check for Strake provision

Calculation of Earthquake load

Summary of Contents contd...

Miscellaneous Components

Erection Tolerances

Inspection and Maintenance.

Minimum requirement of IS : 6533 ( tabulated summary)

Refractory & Insulation

DEFINATION

CHIMNEY IS

DISCHARGE TO THE ATMOSPHERE , THE GASEOUS

PRODUCT OF COMBUSTION , CHEMICAL WASTE

GAS , EXHAUST GASES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

GAS BY CREATING A DRAFT.

NORMALLY THE STRIGHT PORTION OF CHIMNEY IS

CALLED AS STACK

TERMINOLGY

CHIMNEY

LIGHTENING ARRESTOR :- FOR PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTENING

FOR STACK & SURROUNDING EQUIPMENT

AVIATION WARNING LAMP

COWL :- CONICAL/ DISHED CAP AT THE TOP OF CHIMNEY TO

MINIMIZE ENTRY OF RAIN WATER

FLUE GAS ANALYZER LOCATION:- 20 DIA ABOVE LAST GAS ENTRY

POINT

& 8 DIA BELOW STACK EXIT

DRAIN AT STACK BASE

EXIT CONE :- CONICAL PIECE AT EXIT TO PROVIDE REQ. GAS

VELOCITY

TERMINOLGY...

CHIMNEY

EFFLUX VELOCITY:- SPEED OF THE GASES AT THE TOP.

GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION:- CONC. OF AIR POLLUTANTS IN

MG/M3 IN THE BREATHING ZONE.

FLARE:- BOTTOM PORTION OF CHIMNEY IN THE FORM OF A CONE.

REQ. ABOVE 40 M HT TO ACHIEVE BETTER STABILITY.

STRAKE VANE :- AERODYNAMIC STABILIZER TO REDUCE WIND

EXCITED

OSCILLATION. HT SHALL BE 0.1 TO 0.12 TIMES DIA,

PITCH SHALL BE 5* DIA & OVERALL HT SHALL EXTEND 1/3RD OF

STACK HT FROM TOP.

PAINTERS TROLLEY: PROVISION GIVEN FOR PAINTING OF CHIMNEY .

TERMINOLGY...

DRAFT LOSS: DROP OF STATIC PRESSURE OF GAS BETWEEN TWO

POINTS IN A SYSTEM

FORCED DRAFT: SYSTEM WHICH MAINTAIN THE PRODUCTS OF

COMBUSTION , WHEN FLOWN TO OR THROUGH AT A PRESSURE ABOVE

ATMOSPHERIC

INDUCED DRAFT : AT A PRESSURE PROGRESSIVELY INCREASING SUB

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

NATURAL DRAFT: DRAFT CREATED IN THE BOILER DUE TO CHIMNEY

ONLY.

NOMINAL DIA . OF CHIMNEY: INTERNAL DIA AT THE TOP MOST OPENING

OF THE STEEL SHELL

TYPES OF CHIMNEY

INVOLVES REGULAR MAINTENTTIONOF GUY WIRES AND ANCHOR SUPPORT

DIFFICULTY FINDING OUT ANCHORS POINTS ON GROUND

RCC CHIMNEY

FOR SHORT HEAT UP PERIOD & LOW THERMAL CAPACITY

IT ENCOURGES ACID CONDENSATION , CORROSION

BRICK CHIMNEY

REGULAR MAINTENTTION

SIZING OF CHIMNEY

D=

Where

4Q/( V)

V = Velocity of the flue gas at exit of chimney

- shall not be exceeded 30 m /sec

- normally 15-20 m/sec

HEIGHT OF CHIMNEY

- Height of chimney shall satisfy the requirement of draft( Actual draft = Required Draft)

- Influence of aerodynamic shadow

- Considering dispersion of pollutants

SIZING OF CHIMNEY.

DRAFT LOSS METHOD

FOLLWING DRAFT LOSS SHALL BE CONSIDERED IN THE SYSTEM ( BOILER /POWER PLANT)

A) Draft loss through chimney

B) Draft loss through duct

C) Draft loss through system

D) Draft loss due to sudden change

E) Draft loss due to bend

F ) DRFAT CREATED BY CHIMNEY = Dc = H( a -g )

where

a = Density of air at ambient kg/m3

HEIGHT CAN BE CALCULATED AS :

DRFT CREATED BY STACK IN (F) = DRFT LOSS ( A TO E) + DRFAT CREATED BY ID /FD FAN

SIZING OF CHIMNEY.

THE HIGHT OF CHIMNEY SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN THE HEIGHT OF THE

ZONE OF TURBULENT AIR LAYERS FORMED DUE TO UNEVEN HEIGHTS OF

BUILDINGS.

PLEASE REFER HANDOUTS ATTACHED. FOR IS :6533 ANNEXURE-A

HEIGHT OF AREDYNAMIC SHADOW:

FOR TYPE-1

HS =0.36 B +2.5 Hb

HS = 0.36 B + 1.7 Hb

HS = 0.36 ( B+X) + Hb

where

Hs = height in meter of AD shadow

H= height of chimney

Hb = height of buildings in meter

SIZING OF CHIMNEY...

Height of the Chimney for Indian condition ,pollution control board norm

H = 14(Q)^0.3

where Q = SO2 flow in Kg/hr = 2* Fuel Flow* (%S in Fuel)/100

Also H=A*M*F*D/(8*C*V) , This is for dispersed pollutants , ground

level 0.5 mg/m3 concentration.Ref IS 6533 Annex B

For foreign installations, height of the chimney is generally specified in

tender as at least 5/10 m taller than tallest building/Platform in near by

area say150m radius. However, we would ask customer to specify height

based on local rules. On Nat gas units it is usually 30 m, but this

assumption is specified in our offer

FINAL CHIMNEY HEIGHT = MAX. HEIGHT OBTAINED ABOVE THREE METHODS.

MATERIALS

Carbon steel to respective code (IS 2062 for IS std. , SA 36 as per ASME

etc.): up to a temperature of shell 425 Deg C

SA 387 Gr. 11(Alloy Steel) for Temp > 425 Deg C

For sub zero ambient temperatures use impact tested steel ( A36 / A516

GR 60,70 / Alloy steel )

When temp. and acid conc.. Expected to be more we can use Stainless

Steel plates ( ASTM type 316)***

BOLTS & NUTS

It depends also as per code ( Is 1363 , IS 3640 as IS code ,BS4190,BS 4360 etc)

As per ASTM and respective standard matl w.r.t design requirement

DEAD LAODS:

, BAFFLES, GUYS (IF ANY)

WEIGHT OF LINING ( INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL) SHALL BE TREATED AS

SEPARATE LOAD FOR THE PURPOSE OF LOAD COMBINATION

THE FLUE LINING SHALL NOT BE ASSUMED TO INCREASE THE SECTION

MODULUS OF THE SHELL NOT RESIST OVER TURNING DUE TO LATERAL

BENDING ETC

IMPOSED LOAD

EARTHQUAKE LOAD

DYNAMIC WIND LOAD CALCULATION

GUST WIND LOAD CALCULATION

Unless otherwise IS 1893 shall be followed.

LOAD COMBINATION

DEAD LOAD + EARTHQUAKE LOAD

DEAD LOAD +LOAD DUE TO LINING +IMPOSED LOAD +WIND LOAD

DEAD LOAD +LOAD DUE TO LINING +IMPOSED LOAD +EARTH QUAKE LOAD

ANY OTHER CONDITON MENTIONED BY CUSTOMER

DESIGN CONSIDERTAION

PROVISION COVERED IN STRL DESIGN(IS 800)

MINIMUM THICKNESS

ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION

ALLOWANCE FOR CORROSION

ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPERATURE

ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS IN CIRCULAR SHELL

DUE TO DIRECT LOAD AND BENDING MOMENTS

STRESSES DUE TO EARTHQUAKE

BASIC DIMENSION

Basic dimensions are HEIGHT AND CLEAR DIAMETER as per mechanical design.

Clear diameter is nominal dia. Of the shell for unlined or partially lined chimney .

For fully lined , clear diameter is the lined inside dia at top.

If technological reasons ,the dia is less than 500 mm shall be reduced at top

providing constricting passage locally at the top.

For height more than 40 meter should have flare at the bottom.

Minimum height of the flare = 1/3 of the total height of the chimney.

Minimum outside diameter of unlined chimney at top =1/20th of the height of the

chimney.

Minimum outside diameter of the flared at base =1.6 times of o/s dia. at top.

MINIMUM THICKNESS

THICKNESS DUE TO STRESS AND

DEFLECTION+CORROSION ALLOWANCE.

IT SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 6 mm

ALSO NOT LESS THAN 1/500 OF OUTSIDE DIA. OF THE

CHIMNEY.

MINMIUM THK OF FLANGES JOINTING TO CHIMNEY SHALL

BE 6 MM

SUPPORTING STEEL WORK: SHALL BE 8MM MINIMUM FOR

HOT ROLLED

ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION

PRODUCED BY WIND LOAD ONLY WITHOUT TAKING

DYNAMIC FACTOR SHALL NOT BE GREATER THAN

h/200

WHERE h= UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT OF THE CHIMNEY

CORROSION ALLOWANCE + INTERNAL CORROSION ALLOWANCE

TO BE ADDED TO CALCULATED THICKNESS DUE TO STRESS &

DEFLECTION

REFER TABLE-1 FOR TYPICAL CORROSION ALLOWANCE WITH

RESPECT TO APPLICATION AND LIFE PERIOD

( IS 6533 PART-2 TABLE-1)

(IS 6533 PART-2)

PER TABLE-3 OF IS 6533 AND AS PER ANNEXURE-C

OTHER MATL AS PER BS CODE , ASME MATL. SHALL BE

FOUND OUT FORM RESPECTIVE CODE.

ALSO CAN BE DETERMIND BY MULTIPLYING THE FACTOR

FY/fy

WHERE FY=YIELD STRESS OF THAT MATL.

fy= YIELD STRESS OF IS 2062 =250 MPA

ALLOWANCE ON TEMPERATURE

STRESS AT THAT TEMPERATURE.

0-200

Kt 1

Temperature

250

300

0.75

0.67

350

0.6

(Clause - 7.81)

400

0.5

INCREASES INSTRESS

PERMISSBLE STRESSES MAY BE EXCEEDED BY 33 .5 %

HIGH ( AS PER IS 6533 cl. 7.10)

THE PERMISSBLE( ALLOWABLE) STRESSES MAY BE

EXCEEDED BY 25% IF WIND FORCES INVOLVED ( BS 4076

CL.4.3.3.6)

SHALL BE CUT ON CHIMNEY SHELL.

A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FOR THE SHELL SHALL BE CHECKED

CONSIDERING REDUCTION OF SECTION MODULUS.

FOR THIS SHORT OF SECTION MODULUS , EXTRA STIFFENER SHALL

BE PROVIDED FOR STRESS POINT OF VIEW.

FOUNDATION

COMBINATION OF LOADS , SUCH THAT RESULTING

PRESSURE ON THE SUB SOIL BY CONSIDERING DEAD

WEIGHT , MOVEMENT AND HORIZONTAL FORCES, IS

LIMITED TO SAFE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SOIL.

DESIGN CALCULATION

( Category -2) ABOVE MEAN GROUND LEVEL IN AN OPEN TERRAIN & HAVE

BEEN WORKED OUT FOR A 50 YEARS RETURN PERIOD

DESIGN WIND VELOCITY AT ANY HEIGHT (z):- Vz = Vb*K1 * K2 * K3 (as Per IS 875 Pt-3)

( With respect to Class of Structural)

K2= Terrain & Ht and structural size factor(Table 2 of IS 875)

(Varies w.r.t category 1 to 4)

K3 = Topography factor

CHIMNEY , THE CHIMNEY SHALL BE DIVIDED IN TO NOS. OF ZONES SUCH THAT

EACH ZONE HEIGHT SHALL NOT EXCEED 10 MTERE

PST,K = C x qkx hk x dk

Where , C = Shape factor for chimney , 0.7 for circular cross section without strakes

1.2 for circular cross section with strake

qk =Static wind pressure at the mid point of the K TH zone in Pa

hk = Height of KTH zone strip in meter

dk = External Diameter of Chimney of KTH zone in meter

FOR SELF SUPPORTED CHIMNEY , THE DYNAMIC LOAD WILL BE

CONSIDERED IF

PERIOD OF NATURAL OSCILLATION OF THE CHIMNEY EXCEEDS 0.25

sec.( IS : 6533 CLAUSE NO.: 8.3.1)

THE NATURAL FREQUENCY, FIRST MODE SHALL BE CALCULATED BY

DIVIDING IN TO NO OF ZONES CONSIDERING VARYING DIAMETER AND

THICKNESS

The frequency f = 1

2

g (mx)

1/2

(mx2)

Where,

m = Mass of the zone including lining in kg

x = Deflection of the same zone due to force equal to gravity acting its mass

normally at the mass center with the base fixed and top free , in mtere

g = rate of gravitation acceleration = 9.8 m/ s2

LOAD...

The dynamic force acting at the center of the j th zone of the chimney in the 1st mode of natural oscillation ( Up

to 80 meter tall chimney)

Pdyn, 1j = Mj 1 1J

Where

Mj = Mass of the j th zone in kg concentrated at center

1 = Dynamic coefficient as per Table 5 of IS : 6533

= coefficient which takes care of the space correlation of wind pulsation

( w.r.t height and dynamic coefficient) - Table -7 of IS:6533

1J = Deduced acceleration in m/sec2

r

= Y IJ Y1k Pst,k mk

k=1

Y1k2 k Mk

k=1

Where

Mj = Mass of the K th zone in kg

Y 1J , Y1k = Relative ordinates of mode ( refer example)

r = nos. of zone

mk = coefficient of pulsation as per Table-6 of IS: 6533

LOAD...

TOTAL DEFLECTION

Mk = M ST,K +

Yk = YST,K +

(Pdyn.k)2

(Mdyn.k)2

(Ydyn.k)2

METHOD( IT IS NOT A FULLY MATURED METHOD)

GUST WIND LOAD = F z = Cf * Ae* pz *G

where

Cf =force coefficient

Ae = Effective frontal area at the height of z

pz = Design pressure = 0.6 Vz 2 ( where Vz= Vb*k1*k2*k3) k1,k2 as per above

k3 = as per Table-33 of IS 875)

G = gust factor ( peak load/ mean laod)

=formulation given on IS 875 and as per Fig -8,9,10,11 of IS: 875

DESIGN SEISMIC BASE SHEAR :THE TOTAL DESIGN LATERAL FORCE OR DESIGN SEISMIC BASE SHEAR (VB) = Ah* W

Where,

Ah - design horizontal acceleration spectrum value as per 6.4.2 ,

Using the fundamental natural period ta as per 7.6 in the considered direction of vibration;

W- seismic weight of the building is the sum of the seismic weight of the all floor

THE APPROXIMATE FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL PERIOD OF VIBRATION (TA), IN SECONDS TA =

0.085(H)0.75 in sec.

WHERE H IS THE HEIGHT OF THE STRUCTURE

The design horizontal seismic co-efficient Ah for a structure shall be determined by the following expression:

( Ah) = (Z I Sa/g)/2R

Where

Z = Zone factor given in table 2 ( is for max. considered Earthquake and service of life)

I = Importance factor

-table 6 ( Functional use of structural)

R = response reduction factor -table 7(Depending on ductile or brittle deformation)

Sa/g = average response acceleration co efficient for rock (or) soil sites as given by Fig-2

This fig-2 is 5 % damping spectra for concrete.

For any other material the factor given in Table-3 of IS 1893 shall be multiplied to Sa/g value

PLATE AND ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE

FOUNDATION LOADING ( EXPAMPLE)

Max.Shear due to wind

Max.Moment due to wind

Max.Shear due to seismic force

Addl.Shear due to platform load & duct load

=

=

=

=

68.17 Kn

2114 kN-m

301 kN

29.15 kN

Total bending moment due to Seismic

=

=

330.15 kN

12910 kN-m

ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE.

DESIGN OF BASE PLATE

Mean dia of stack

=

4.0m

Max.Compressive stress per unit length Of circumference, fc

= ((4 *M)/( D2))+(Ws/( D)

= ((4*12910)/(3.14*4*4))+(1095/3.14*4)) =

1115.05 kN / m

Provide 40.0cm as width of base Plate.

Bearing Pressure below base plate

=

1115/0.4

=

2787.5

kN / Sq.m

Base plate is designed as Gusseted base using

"Theory of plates and shells by Roark's Formulae for Stress and Strain".

Bending moment for a plate rigidly held on three sides and other side is free. LOADING Uniformly

distributed load(q)

=

2787.5

kN / Sq.m

Now from table-26 of Roark's book,

a

=

400mm

b

=

295mm

a/b = 1.36

The maximum bending moment per unit width of plate occur at middle of fixed edge.

Max ,

2

2

=

(1*q*b )/ t

=

0.61*2.88*((295)^2)/(32^2) =

149.30

<165N/Sq.m 32 mm thickness of base plate is

O.K

ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE.

DESIGN OF STIFFENER PLATE

Max. Load on stiffener plate

Max.Bending moment

otherwise

=

2788*0.295 = 822.46 KN

=

((2788*0.295)*0.336*0.336)/2

=

46.43

KN.m

F=

M/Z

Z=( t * l 2)/6 = (t*336*336) /6

F= 46.43 /Z

165 =(46.43*10^6*6)/(t*336*336)

t (Required) =

Prov. 16 mm stiffener plate.

14.96mm

ANCHOR BOLT WITH EXAMPLE...

DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT

n is the no. of bolts =

(4*m/n*D1)-(Ws/n)

D1 is the PCD of Base plate

48

4.50m

Tensile capacity of M56 Anchor Bolt

295.41 KN

>

218.54

KN

Hence o.k

Total length of anchor plate

=

1375 Bonding capacity

KN

>

218.54

KN

218.54

(3.14/4)*5.6*5.6*0.8*120*1.25(

1925

=

(3.14*7*1375*5.6*1.325)/1000

=

KN

=

224.25

ANCHOR DETAILS

Vcr = 5 D X f

Where

f= natural frequency in Hz

D = diameter of chimney at top in meter

Strake is not required if

the critical velocity is with in the range 0.5 to 0.8 times of design wind

velocity for lined / partial lined chimneys

the critical velocity is with in the range 0.33 to 0.8 times of design wind

velocity for unlined chimneys

MISCELLANEOUS COMPONENTS

INSPECTION DOOR

Suitable door for access near the base shall be used for internal Inspection and ash removal

( min. Size: 500 mm wide x 800 mm high)

PLATFORM ,HANDRAIL & LADDER

For erection , service of warning lamps ,earthling,inspection ,sampling ,approach to other instrument connection if

any. (minimum width =800 mm)

This is supporting chair given on the base of chimney to holding the stack with foundation.

The minimum thickness of gusset shall be 8 mm

LIGHTENING ARRESTOR

Suitable Aviation lamp to be provided. Recommended nos and position of the same depending upon the height of

chimney as per fig -4

BAFFLE PLATE

When there are two or more breach opening or flue entering , baffles plate to be provided to properly direct the gases without

interfering with each other.

These baffles plate shall be properly insulated.

ERECTION TOLERANCE

VARIATION IN THE ECCETRICITY OF THE AXIA OF CHIMNEY FROM VERTICAL

=1/1000 OF THE HIEGHT ,AT THAT PARTICULAR SECTION. & MAX. 25 mm

WELDING OF SHELL PLATES SHALL BE AS PER IS : 816

checked by either ultrasonic or by drill testing

For lined chimney should be inspected internally that whether refractory

is still serviceable condition or not

Flanges should be inspected to see I\f there is a build up of rust

x

a

Description

IS 6533 CODE

Minimum clear flue dia for lined

1

500 mm inside Dia

stack

1/3 rd height for stack ht >/= 40 m to provide better

2 Flare requirement

stability

1/20 th of cylindrical portion for unlined,

3 Minimum OD of stack at top

1/25 th of cylindrical portion for lined

Minimum OD at base for flared

4

1.6 times diameter at top

stack

based on( stress + deflection ) analysis+corrosion

allowance

5 Minimum shell thickness

Should not be < 6 mm

Should not be <1/500 of Dia at that location

6 Allowable deflection at top

height of stack /200

dead load + wind load

7 Load combinations for analysis dead + earthquake

dead load+lining+imposed (platform) + wind load

dead load+lining+imposed (platform) + earthquake

For this combination allowable

load

stress, 33% more allowed

8 Dynamic analysis/ Resonance Check

2. Acid Resistant Bricks :- For Highly Corrosive Gases

3. Castable Gunniting :- Low dense castable

External Insulation:- To Minimize Temp Drop & improve

stack shell metal temperature

Painting : Internal & External corrosion resistance to suit

gas temp

1. Inorganic Zinc Silicate followed by Heat resistant

Silicone Aluminum for temp > 250 C

2. Heat Resistant Aluminum Paint.

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