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The Electron Transport

• Review Glycolysis
• Review Krebs Cycle
• Where does the ETC occur?
– Inner membrane of the mitochondria
• What goes to the ETC?
– Our electron carriers! NADH and FADH2
• Where do the electron carriers come from?
– Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
A Lil’ Bit About those electron
shuttles (NADH and FADH2)
• FADH2 makes 2 ATPs
• NADH from glycolysis makes 2 ATPs
– Occurs cytoplasm
• NADH from Krebs cycle make 3 ATPs
– Occurs in matrix
• Why the difference in #s?
– The NADH made in glycolysis has to use a little bit of energy
to get into the mitochondria
A Lil’ Bit About the ETC
• What is the inner mitochondrial membrane like?
– Phospholipid bilayer
• What makes up the ETC?
– A series of protein complexes that pass these high E electrons along
• Why do we need to pass the electrons along?
– To pump those hydrogen ions (that tagged along) across the inner membrane
to make a GRADIENT
– Every time an electron is passed down the chain, one H+ ionis pumped across
the membrane
– What is a gradient?
• When there is a high concentration of something on one side of a membrane and a
low concentration on the other side, THEREFORE diffusion occurs
So who are these guys that make
up the ETC?
• #1 Big Protein NADH dehydrogenase
• #2 Big Protein Cytochrome b-c1
• #3 Big Protein Cytochrome Oxidase
• #4 Big Protein (most important!) ATP Synthase
• We have 2 smaller protein shuttles that are
involved as well:
– Ubiquinone (You-bic-win-own)
• Carries two electrons from #1 big protein to #2 big protein
– Cytochrome c
• Carries one electron at a time from #2 big protein to #3 big
The Job of the #3 Big Protein: Cytochrome
Oxidase (the matchmaker)
• Look at the name…what do you think is involved here?
(remember, we are almost to the end of the ETC)
• #3 big protein waits for 4 electrons to enter
• When that happens, 8 H+ ions come into with O2 (2
atoms of oxygen)…
• Time to mix and mingle!
– 2 e-, 2 H+, and an oxygen join together to make H2O
– This happens again with the other oxygen
– These 2 water molecules are released as products
(of cellular respiration)
– But who is left by themselves in the #3 Big Protein?
• 4 H+ ion…the party is over, no more e- or oxygen
to pick up, they leave :o( (get pumped across
Uh Oh…its getting a little
• By this time, we have way too many
H+ ions on one side (there is a
gradient=lots of pot. E)
• The ions will diffuse and get pumped
back to the less crowded side
• Who allows these ions to cross back?
– ATP Synthase
• Every time an H+ goes thru, ATP
synthase turns, attaching an ADP to an
inorganic phosphate making…
• ATP!!!
• Now the Cell has energy to
do work! What types?
– Mechanical
– Molecular
– Transport
• If there is no H+ ion
concentration gradient, ATP
synthase will NOT turn, and
if it does not turn, no ATP is
made= NO ENERGY!! (very
Cellular Respiration Totals For 1
Glucose Molecule

• Glycolysis
– 2 NADH to the ETC to make 4 ATP (2x2)
– 4 ATP – 2 ATPs used= 2ATP
– 2 pyruvates coverted to 2 acetyl CoA 2 NADH to go to the
ETC to make 6 ATPs (2x3)
• Krebs cycle
– 2 ATPs
– 6 NADH x 3 atp per NADH= 18 ATPs
– 2 FADH2 x 2 atp per FADH2= 4 ATPs
• Net Total: 36 ATPs
Tid Bits
• 36 ATPs is 38% of the total energy contained in glucose
• What about the other 62%?
– It’s is released as heat
– Imagine all use cells working hard giving off heat…
that is why you are hot after exercising!
• Each molecule of ATP/ADP travels between the
mitochondria and the cytoplasm approximately once a
• Each day, 2 x 1016 molecules of ADP are phosphorylated
in our bodies: 160kg/day.
• Each ATP Synthase complex can phosphorylate up to
100 molecules of ADP per second.