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Seminar on

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

BE Chemical

Guided by :- Prof. A. V. Mohod


Department of Chemical Engineering
ALL INDIA SHRI SHIVAJI MEMORIAL SOCIETY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, PUNE

Introduction
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found
in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petroleum is a mixture of gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbon
compounds that occur in sedimentary rock deposits throughout the world
and also contains small quantities of nitrogen-, oxygen-, and sulfurcontaining compounds, as well as trace amounts of metallic constituents

Petroleum Products
Gaseous Fuels

Lubricating Oil

Naphtha

Grease

Gasoline

Asphalt

Additives

Coke

Kerosene

Sulfuric Acids

Fuel Oil

Acid Sludge

Gasoline
Properties of gasoline
Higher RVP (Reid Vapor Pressure)
Good anti knocking characteristics
RVP and Boiling range governs ease of starting, engine
warm up, rate of acceleration,

Natural gas, which is predominantly methane, occurs in underground


reservoirs separately or in association with crude oil. The principal
types of gaseous fuels are oil gas, reformed natural gas, and
reformed propane or liquefid petroleum gas (LPG).

LPG
Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) is the term applied to certain
specification hydrocarbons and their
mixtures, which exist in the gaseous state under atmospheric
ambient conditions but can be converted to the liquid state under
conditions of moderate pressure at ambient temperature.
Liquified Petroleum Gas
Carbon no C3-C4
Contains propane, butane, propylene, butylene, isobutane.

NAPHTHA
Naphtha is actually a generic term applied to refied, partly refied, or an
unrefied petroleum fraction. In the strictest sense of the term, not less than
10% of the material should distill below 175C (345F) and not less than 95%
of the material should distill below 240C (465F) under standardized
distillation conditions (ASTM D86). Generally (but this can be refiery
dependent), naphtha is an unrefied petroleum that distills below 240C
(465F) and is (after the gases constituents) the most volatile fraction of the
petroleum.
In fact, in some specifiations, not less than 10% of material should distil below
75C (167F) (Pandey etal., 2004). It is typically used as a precursor to
gasoline or to a variety of solvents. Naphtha resembles gasoline in terms of
boiling range and carbon number, being a precursor to gasoline.
The term petroleum solvent describes the liquid hydrocarbon fractions
obtained from petroleum and used in industrial processes and formulations.
These fractions are also referred to naphtha or as industrial naphtha. By
defiition the solvents obtained from the petrochemical industry such as
alcohols, ethers, and the like are not included in this chapter. A refiery is
capable of producing hydrocarbons of a high degree of purity and at the
present time petroleum solvents are available covering a wide range of
solvent properties including both volatile and high boiling qualities.