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INDUSTRIAL

INDUSTRIAL

PSYCHOLOGY
PSYCHOLOGY
Dr. R.L. NARAYANA SIMHA

INDUSTRIAL
INDUSTRIALPSYCHOLOGY
PSYCHOLOGY
AS
ASAASCIENCE
SCIENCE
Acc. To American Psychological
Association (API), The specialty of industrialorganizational psychology (also called I/O
psychology) is characterized by the scientific
study of human behavior in organizations
and the work place. The specialty focuses on
deriving principles of individual, group and
organizational behavior and applying this
knowledge to the solution of problems at
work.
.

1.Specialized Knowledge:Specialized knowledge and training in the


science of behavior in the workplace requires indepth knowledge of organizational
development, attitudes, career development,
decision theory, human performance and human
factors, consumer behavior, small group theory
and process, criterion theory and development,
job and task analysis and individual assessment.
In addition, the specialty of industrialorganizational psychology requires knowledge
of ethical considerations as well as statutory,
administrative, and case law and executive
orders as related to activities in the workplace

2.Problems Addressed:The specialty of Industrial / Organizational


Psychology addresses issues of recruitment,
selection and placement, training and
development, performance measurement,
workplace motivation and reward systems,
quality of work life, structure of work and
human factors, organizational development
and consumer behavior.

3. Skills and Procedures Utilized:I/O Psychologists are scientist-practitioners who


have expertise in the design, execution and
interpretation of research in psychology and who
apply their findings to help address human and
organizational problems in the context of organized
work.
I/O psychologists:
.Identify training and development needs;
.Design and optimize job and work and quality of
work life;
.Formulate and implement training programs and
evaluate their effectiveness;
.Coach employees;
.Develop criteria to evaluate performance of
individuals and organizations;
.Assess consumer preferences, customer satisfaction
and market strategies.

METHODS
OF
UNDERSTANDING
METHODS OF UNDERSTANDING
BEHAVIOUR
BEHAVIOUR
1. INTROSPECTION
2. OBSERVATION [PARTICIPATIVE &
NON-PARTICIPATIVE]
3. INTERVIEW
4. CASE STUDY
5. SURVEY METHOD
6. CLINICAL METHOD
7. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

SCOPE
SCOPEOF
OFI/O
I/OPSYCHOLOGY
PSYCHOLOGY
Acc. Mc. Collom
1. PERSONAL SELECTION:- Selection of employees,
executives for various jobs and developing the
instruments of personal selection by conducting
relevant research.
2. PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT:- Developing the methods
of the appraisal of the performance of the
employees, executives etc. Helping employees for
better adjustment themselves or their environment.
3. HUMAN ENGINEERING:- Setting and suggesting
changing innovations in the designs of machines,
equipment and operations, with a view to achieving
greater ease in operation, with least possible
expenditure of human energy.

4. PRODUCTIVITY STUDY:- Activities


concerned with lessening worker
fatigue improving environment
conditions such as lighting,
ventilation, working arrangements etc.
with a view in maximizing efficiency.
5. MANAGEMENT:- Activities involving
development of management skills
and other activities.
6. ACCIDENT PREVENTION & SAFETY
MEASURES:7. LABOUR RELATIONS:8. CONSUMER:-

HISTORICAL
HISTORICALPERSPICTIVE
PERSPICTIVE
It is exceedingly difficulty to apply a date to
the founding of any discipline. However,
industrial psychology may have gotten its start
on December 20, 1901 by Dr. Walter Dill Scott.
But the honor first industrial psychologist been
awarded to Hugo Munsterberg.
During World War 1 (1914-18)psychologists
were quite active in the war effort, developing
group tests for army recruits and aiding in the
development of procedures for the selection 0f
officer personal.

During the post-World War 1 years industry


first began to show an interest in the
discipline of industrial psychology.
Without much question World War 2 (193945)was a major factor in the growth of
psychology in industry. Although the American
Association for Applied Psychology was
formed in 1937 as the official organization of
industrial psychology (it later became Division
14 of the APA).

Notable development in applied psychology


since World War 2 was the establishment of
other separate division of the APA devoted
to various aspects of the field:
1. The division of Military Psychology
(Division 19).
2. The Society of Engineering Psychologists,
a division of APA (Division 21).
3. The Division of Consumer Behaviour
(Division 23).
4. While the percentage of joint membership
in these divisions and division 14 is high.

UNIT-2
PERSONAL SELECTION
AND EVALUATION

METHODS OF PERSONAL
SELECTION

Scientists refer to the ways in which people


differ
from
one
another
as
individual
differences, i.e. temperament, physical skill,
mental ability and behaviour, such unique
qualities can have major influences on our
thinking and behavior as well as our lives and
careers. Because such factors play a role in
many aspects of behavior in work settings,
they have long been of interest to experts in
the field of organizational behavior.
To know those individual differences and select
suitable candidate, some scientific personal
selection methods are there. Those are:
1. INTERVIEW
2. PERSONAL DATA
3. SOURCES
OF
CANDIDATES.

INFORMATION

ABOUT

JOB

INTERVIEW

DEFINITION
The interview is a conversation with a purpose.
There are three purposes that may be served1. Obtaining information
2. Giving information
3. Motivation
The employment interview should serve each of
these three purposes. It should provide an
appraisal of personality by obtaining relevant
information about the prospective employees
background, his training, work history, education
and interests.
Obtaining information has been the primary
objective of the interview rather than giving
information or motivating.

Interview used in industry differ according to their


objectives. Some are
1. SELECTION OR PLACEMENT INTERVIEWS:- To
evaluate the candidate for purpose of hiring,
promotion or transfer.
2. ATTITUDE INTERVIEWS:- To obtain information from
the interviewee concerning his attitudes about his
job, the company etc.
3. COUNSELING INTERVIEWS:- To help the employee
with any particular personal or on-the-job problem
which might be harmful to his performance both on
and off the job.
4. ASSESSMENT OR STRESS INTERVIEWS:- To evaluate
the interviewee for his ability to perform under a
particular set of difficult circumstances. The
interviewer deliberatively provokes stressful
situations with the hope of measuring a persons
ability to perform under such conditions. [such
interviews were first popularized by the OFFICE OF
STRATIGIC SERVICES (OSS) in World War 2)

TYPES OF
INTERVIEWS
1. STRUCTURED
2. NON-STRUCTURE

THE SELECTION
INTERVIEW

To evaluate the candidate for purpose of


hiring, promotion or transfer.
LENGTH OF THE SELECTION INTERVIEW
There is no standard time limit
associated with interviews for selection
purposes. The length varies depending
on the type of position, number of
applicants, importance attached to the
interview as a selection device and
personality of the interviewer.

A MODEL OF THE SELECTION


INTERVIEW:The basic purpose of the interviewer
in any assessment interview situation is
twofold:
1. To gather as much data as one can
which are relevant to the decision
2. To evaluate the data available and
decide to select or reject the
applicant.

A MODEL OF THE SELECTION INTERVIEW PROCESS

DATA SOURCES IN THE INTERVIEW


Data classified into two categories depending
upon the source of the information.
1. In the first category are data from sources not
directly tied to the interview situation itself.
These auxiliary sources include letters of
recommendation,
application
blanks,
psychological tests etc.
2. The second major category of data is
information
obtained
in
the
face-to-face
situation which is unique to the interview itself.
Examples might be data about the dress and
mannerisms of the applicant, his speech, his
way of handling himself in a social situation etc.

CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICSOF
OFTHE
THESELECTION
SELECTION
INTERVIEW
INTERVIEW
Interview is a verbal and visual
interaction between two individuals.
Thus many of the cues available to the
interviewer will be based upon the
language and appearance of the
interviewee.
It is a conversation with a purpose. The
task of the interviewer is to use this
conversational tool to elicit as much
relevant information as possible (and
generally within specified time span).

REACTIONS OF INTERVIEWER:1. AGGREMENT:- The interviewer would


say youre right, I agree, Thats
so, or some similar. Incase where he
did not want to interrupt, he would nod
his head and smiled.
2. PARAPHRASING:- The interviewer would
repeat back to the subject the opinion
statement just made.
3. SILENCE:- The interviewer refrained
from any comment or action at all.
4. DISAGREEMENT:- The interviewer by
statement or action would show
disagreement with every statement of
opinion.

FORMAT OF THE
SELECTION
INTERVIEW
1. Both interviewers could examine each
candidate together, working as a team
and arriving at a joint decision as to
hire or not.
2. Each interviewer could examine each
candidate separately and then only
hire those whom both interviewers
agreed should be hired(multiple cutoff
approach)

INTERVIEW
INTERVIEW
VALIDITY
VALIDITY
Ulrich and Trumbo in their reviews
subdivided all validity studies into three
classifications depending upon the
criterion used. There were1. Predictions of proficiency ratings
2. Predictions of success in training
3. Predictions of psychiatric rating of
discharge

LIMITATIONS
The interviewer cant judge from a
mans face such personality and
character traits honesty. There is no
evidence to support popular notions that
personality and character traits agree
with the contour of the face, the height
of the forehead, the closeness of the
eyes and the like.
HALO:- The interviewer is apt to like one
or more traits, not necessarily connect to
job success, and transfer his favorable
impression to his final evaluation of the
applicant.

PERSONAL
PERSONALDATA
DATA(OR)
(OR)APPLICATION
APPLICATIONBLANK
BLANK
Application Blanks/Personal Data generally have two
functions.
1. They provide pertinent information about the
employee which the company will need if the
individual is hired. Ex, name, age, sex, number of
dependent etc.
2. Application blanks are designed to gather
information about job applicants which the
personal officer feels are pertinent to the hiring
process.
In a sense an application blank is a highly
structured interview in which the questions have been
standardized and determined in advance.

CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONAL DATA


1. Generally the information depends upon
the personal history.
2. It includes items dealing with the
previous work and life history of the
applicant.
3. In many instances, an application blank
from some other company is used as a
guide.
4. What items need to be included on an
application blank is certainly important.

VALIDITY
VALIDITYOF
OFAPPLICATION
APPLICATIONBLANK
BLANK
As with other types of predictors, one
must always be concerned with the
stability of a predictive relationship over
time. How likely is it that scoring keys,
developed at one point in time, are going
to successfully predict at some later time
period.

SOURCES OF
INFORMATION ABOUT
JOB CANDIDATES
PERSONALITY
ASSESMENT

SUBJECTIVE
METHODS

OBSERVATION
OBSERVATION
INTERVIEW
INTERVIEW
CASE STUDY
CASE STUDY

OBJECTIVE
METHODS
RATING SCALE
RATING SCALE
INVENTORY or
INVENTORY or
QUESTIONNAIR
QUESTIONNAIR
E
E
SITUATION
SITUATION
TESTS

PROJECTIVE
METHODS
ASSOCIATION
ASSOCIATION
CONSTRUCTIO
CONSTRUCTIO
N
N
COMPLETION
COMPLETION
ORDARING
ORDARING
EXPRESSION
EXPRESSION

SUBJECTIVE METHODS
1. OBSERVATION:- Observation is a
popular method to study the
behaviour pattern of an individual in
actual life situation. What personality
traits or characteristics the observer
needs to know are first decided by him
and then he observes relevant
activities of the subject in real life
situation. It can be done in two ways.
i) Non participative observation
ii) Participative observation

2. INTERVIEW:- Interview is a technique


of getting information directly from
the subject about his personality in
face-to-face contacts. It gives an
opportunity for mutual exchange of
ideas information between the subject
and the psychologists.
i) Free interview
ii) Standardized interview
3. CASE STUDY:- A research method
involving a detailed investigation of a
single individual or a single organized
group.

OBJECTIVE METHODS
1. RATING SCALE:- Rating scale is used to
know from others where an individual
stands in terms of certain personality traits
2. INVENTORY OR QUESTIONNARE:- In general
the word questionnaire refers to a device
for securing answers to questions by using
a form which the respondent fills in himself.
Personality inventory is specially designed
to seek answers about the person and his
personality
E.g. Do you enjoy being alone? Yes/No
Do you enjoy seeing others success?
Yes/No

MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY


INVENTORY

3. SITUATIONAL TESTS:- Here the


situation is artificially created in which
an individual is expected to perform
acts related to the personality traits
under testing. E.g. to test the honesty
of an individual, some situations can
be created and his reaction can be
evaluated in terms of honesty or
dishonesty. E.g. psychodrama

3. PROJECTIVE
METHODS
These techniques are based on the
phenomenon of projection. In this
techniques relatively indefinite and
unstructured stimuli(like vague pictures,
ink blots, incomplete sentence etc.) are
provided to the subject and he is asked to
structured them in any way he likes.
In doing so he unconsciously projects
his own desires, hopes, fears, repressed
wishes etc. and thus not only reveals his
inner or private world but gives a proper
clue to estimate his total personality.

1. ASSOCIATION TEST:- In this technique, a list of


stimulus words is read out, the subject responding
to each word quickly .
2. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE:- In this technique, the
subject has to respond(write a story etc.) for given
stimulus(abstract paintings etc.).
3. COMPLECTION TECHNIQUE:- These tests include a
list of incomplete open-ended sentence or picture,
which require completion by the subject.
E.g. My hope is
I fee proud when..,
My hero is..
4. ORDERING:- The subject has to arrange some words
or things in order.
5. EXPRESSION:- The subject has to express his
response(feelings) for his given stimulus (pictures)
in a oral or written form.

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION
TEST
Developed by Murray and Morgan.
It consists of 30 pictures which portray
human beings in a variety of actual life
situation. 10 for male, 10 for female and
10 for both.

RORSCHAK INK BLOT TEST


This technique has been developed by
Swiss psychologist, who was the son of an
art teacher. Material of the test consists of
10 cards with ink blots, those are
completely unstructured.

GENERAL
GENERAL
PRINCIPLES
PRINCIPLES OF
OF
PERSONAL
PERSONAL TESTING
TESTING
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND THERE USES

TYPES OF
TESTS
Tests were used in industry prior to 1910 by
Hugo Munstenberg in connection with
various problems in his research for the
Boston Elevated Railway Company.

ACHIEVEMENT AND APTITUDE TESTS:The former is supposedly a measure of a


persons potential in a given area, while the
latter is a current skill or ability at the
moment of testing. Thus, many tests one can
(1) measure the amount of present skill, and
(2) use the present score to predict future
performance.

TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICALTESTS
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS

VERBAL/LANGUAGE
TESTS

GROUP TESTS

INDIVIDUAL TESTS

NON-VERBAL/
PERFORMANCE

GROUP TESTS

INDIVIDUAL TESTS

CLASSIFICATION OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
As for as the administrative point of
view is concerned the tests can be
classified into two broad categories
namelyi) INDIVIDUAL TESTS:- In which only one
individual is tested at a time.
ii) GROUP TESTS:- In which a group of
individuals is tested at a time.

Another way of classifying the


intelligence tests is based on the form
of the test. Accordingly there are two
types of testsi) VERBAL OR LANGUAGE TESTS:- These
tests make use or language. Here the
instructions are given in words(either
in written or oral form of both).
Individuals are required to use
language as well as paper and pencil
for giving the responses. The test
content of these tests is loaded with
verbal material.

ii) NON-VERBAL OR NON-LANGUAGE


TESTS:These tests involve such activities in which
the use of language is not necessary. The
use or language is eliminated from test
content and response except in giving
directions.
The typical example of such non-verbal
tests are Performance Tests.

1. INDIVIDUAL VERBAL TESTS:The test involving the use of


language and administrated to an
individual at a time belong to this
category.
e.g. Stanford Binet Scale

2. INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE TESTS:-

The complete non-verbal or nonlanguage tests of intelligence for


testing an individual at a time come
into this classification. In these tests
the items which require responses in
terms of motor activities are
included.
e.g. i) Block building or cube
construction
ii) To fit the block in the holes
iii) Tracing a maze

3. GROUP VERBAL INTELLIGENCE


TESTS:The tests, which necessitate the use of
language and are applied to a group of
individuals at a time, come under this
category.
E.g. Army Alpha test(developed in
world war).

4. THE GROUP NON-VERBAL


INTELLIGENCE TESTS:These tests do not necessitate the use of
language and are applicable to a group of
individuals at a given time.
The performance tests require the
manipulation of concrete objects or
materials supplied in the test by the
subject.
In this tests responses are purely motor
and material does not contain words or
numerical figures. It contains pictures,
diagrams and geometrical figures etc.
printed in a booklet. E.g. Army Beta Test

SPEED AND POWER


TESTS
When test performance is based primarily
upon the speed with which one works, the
test is referred to as a speed test.
The other extreme would be a test where
the items were difficult and the person
was given as much time as necessary to
complete the items.

USES
USES OF
OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL
TESTS
PSYCHOLOGICAL
TESTS

The test is an objective and standardized


behaviour sample which lends itself well to
statistical evaluation.
Generally it is easier to determine the value
of a test than it is to evaluate other
selection devise such as interviews, letters
of recommendation, etc.
The great advantage in testing is that it can
improve the selection process.
Tests of interest and personality may be
more susceptible to either unconscious or
deliberate bias on the part of the applicant
under certain conditions.

HUMAN
HUMAN ABILITIES
ABILITIES AND
AND
THEIR
THEIR MEASUREMENT
MEASUREMENT

HUMAN ABILITIES AND THEIR TESTS


1. MENTAL ABILITY TESTS/INTELLIGENCE
TESTS
2. MECHANICAL APTITUDE TESTS
3. TEST OF SENSORY ABILITY
4. TESTS OF MOTOR ABILITY
5. INTEREST INVENTORIES
6. PERSONALITY INVENTORIES

MENTAL ABILITY/INTELLIGENCE
TESTS
Intelligence consists of an individuals those
mental or cognitive abilities which help him in
solving his actual life-problems and leading a happy
and well-contented life.

GUILFORD MODEL OF INTELLECT:J,B. Guilford & his associates come to the


conclusion that any mental process or intellectual
activity of the human being can be described in
terms of three basic determinations or parameters
known as operations, content & product.
i. OPERATIONS:- The act of thinking or way of
processing the information.
ii. CONTENTS:- The terms in which we think or
the type of information involved.
iii. PRODUCTS:- The idea we come up with, i.e. the
fruits of thinking
Each of these parameters subdivided into some
specific factors or elements. As a result,
operations subdivided into 5 specific factors,
contents into 4 and operations into 6 thus results
into the 5 * 4 * 6 = 120.

GUILFORD MODEL OF INTELLICT

1. CONTENTS:- (the type of information


involved)
. FIGURAL The properties of stimuli
we can experience through visual or
auditory senses. Ex, colour, size,
shape , voice, sound, etc.
. SYMBOLOIC numbers, letters,
symbols, designs etc.
. SEMANTIC The meaning of words and
ideas.
. BEHAVIOURAL The actions and
expressions of people.

2. OPERATIONS:- (The way of processing)


. COGNITION:- Recognizing and
discovering
. MEMORY:- Retaining and recalling the
contents of thought
. DIVERGENT PRODUCTION:- Producing a
variety of ideas or solutions to a
problem.
. CONVERGENT THINKING:- Producing a
single best solution to a problem.
. EVALUATION:- Decision making capacity.
Good or bad, positive or negative etc.

3.PRODUCTS:- (the result obtained through


operations)
i. UNITS:- Individual pieces of information limited
in size, e.g. a single number, letter or word.
ii. CLASSES:- Some common characteristics
involving a higher order concept (e.g. men +
women = people)
iii. RELATIONS:- A connection between concepts.
iv. SYSTEMS:- An ordering or classification of
relations.
v. TRANSFORMATION:- Altering or restructuring
intellectual contents.
vi. IMPLICATIONS:- Making inferences from
separate pices of information.

INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT
(I.Q.)
This term was initiated by German
psychologist William Stern and put into
wide practice by Terman.
It appeared to Stern that if a child was 6
years old (chronologically) but could do
when an 8 years old normally does he
would be 8/6 = 1.33 as bright as the
average. And in this way he made the ratio
M.A./C.A., measure or the rate of mental
development of an individual. To do away
with the decimal point, the ratio was a
gain multiplied by 100.
IQ= MA/CA*100

CLASSIFACATION OF I.Q.
I.Q.
140 and above
120-140
110-120
90-110
75-90
50-75
25-50
Bellow 25

LEVEL OF
INTELLIGENCE
Gifted or Genius
Very Superior
Superior
Normal or Average
Border line & Dull
Morons
Imbeciles
Idiods

MECHANICAL
MECHANICALAPTITUDE
APTITUDETESTS
TESTS
Tests dealing with mechanical aptitude
can be classified into two subgroupsmeasures of mechanical reasoning and/or
information, and measures of spatial
relations.
Ex- Minnesota Spatial Relation Test.

TESTS OF SENSORY ABILITY


1.
2.
3.
4.

TESTS OF VISION
TESTS OF HEARING
Eye of span
Ear span

TESTS FOR MOTOR


ABILITY
Quite a variety of standardized
performance tests are available for
measuring fine and/or gross motor
coordination. Some of the frequently used
tests are listed below.
1. PURDUE BOARD:- This timid test
requires pins to be placed into small
holes in the pegboard, using first the
right hand, then the left hand and
finally both hands together.
2. MINNESOTA RATE OF MANIPULATION
TEST etc.

INTEREST
INVENTORIES

The likelihood of success in an


occupation in which one is interested
should be greater than the likelihood of
success in an occupation which a person
finds not particularly interesting. For this
reason it would seem sensible to obtain
some measure of a persons interests
prior to placing him on a job or
suggesting any particular vocation. Some
interest measuring tools are:
1. STRONG VOCATIONAL INTEREST
BLANK(SVIB)
2. KUDIR PREFERENCE RECORD