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A short Presentation On nuclear structure

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AN D

P R O P ER TIES O F N U C LEI

By

A Saxena

states, depending upon energies, angular

momenta etc.

Static properties of nuclei (in ground

states) electric charge, mass, binding

energy, size, shape, angular momentum,

magnetic

dipole

moment,

electric

quadrupole moment, statistics, parity

and iso-spin.

Dynamic characteristics of nuclei play role

in processes of nuclear reactions, nuclear

excitation and nuclear decay.

Nucleons

elementary particles, protons and neutrons.

+p

n

+1e

mass ~1836 times electronic mass (me)

Neutron electrically neutral,

slightly heavier than proton

In the nucleus protons and neutrons held together

by very strong short range attractive force,

constitutes specifically nuclear interaction.

mass number A = N + Z.

Z = atomic number of element in periodic

table.

Nucleus of an atom X of atomic number Z

and mass number A is written as

A

or AX.

Z X

4

e.g.

or 4He nucleus of helium

2 He

atom,

atomic number 2 and mass number 4.

This is -particle.

i.e. Nuclei contain same no. of protons,

but different no. of neutrons.

e.g. Lithium (Z = 3) has two stable isotopes

6Li and 7Li

no. of protons in both nuclei are same Z =3.

6Li N = 3

7 Li N =4.

Relative abundance Elements having more than one

stable isotope in natural state are mixtures of these

isotopes in fixed proportions (which remain more or

less the same, Irrespective of their source).

Natural lithium is a mixture of two stable isotopes

6Li & 7Li with relative abundances 7.4% and 92.6%.

H (99.99%), 2H (0.01%).

2H is called deuterium and its nucleus

deuteron.

Another unstable Isotope with A = 3

called tritium 3H.

Isobars Nuclei with same mass no.

A, but different no. of proton Z

Isotones nuclei with same no. of

neutrons but different mass no.

1

Nuclear mass :

Atomic mass M by subtracting the

masses of

Z orbital electrons (me is mass of

electron)

Mnucl = M - Z me

This expression is not exact,

since it does not take into account

binding energies of the electrons

in atom.

Minimum amount of energy supplied to

nucleus to break up a nucleus

Z protons and N neutrons completely,

i.e. all are separated from each other.

In formation of a nucleus,

same amount of energy is required,

which comes from disappearance of a fraction

of its total mass(of Z protons and N neutrons),

If quantity of mass disappear M, then

binding energy

EB = Mc2

(e.g. 1g mass completely converted into energy = 9 x 10 13

J)

So mass of the nucleus < sum of the masses of

In hydrogen atom

mass of hydrogen atom MH and neutron Mn

M = Z MH + N Mn - M(A, Z)

where M(A,

no. Z).

Z)

EB= [Z MH + N Mn - M(A,Z)]c2

masses of the Z electrons (Zme) cancel out.

Hence M for the nucleus

M = Z Mp + N Mn Mnuc (A,Z)

Due to mass-energy equivalence masses can be

written in energy units, then c 2 can be omitted.

1 mole contains N0 atoms, Where N0 = 6.02205 x

1023 is Avogadro number,

12 X 10-3 or 12x 1.660566 x 10-27 kg

No

Then mass of each 12C atom is

1 u = 1 x 12 X 10-3 = 1.660566 x 10-27 kg

12

No

Energy-equivalent of this mass is

1 u = 1.660566x 10-27 x c2

= 1.660566 X 10-27 x 8.98755 X 1016

= 14.924427x 10-11 Joule

= 14.924427 x 10-11 = 931.502 MeV

1.60219 x 10-13

12

Required for determination of nuclear binding energies

and calculation of nuclear disintegration energies.

e.g. -disintegration of a heavy element like 226Ra (Z=

88) Nuclei spontaneously disintegrate by emission of

-particles (of few MeV kinetic energy) from

conversion of a part of nucleus mass into energy

(by mass-energy equivalence relation ).

226Ra 222Rn + 4He

Product 222Rn (Z=86)

The masses of different atoms take part in process

M (226Ra ) = 226.025436 u

M(222Rn) = 222.017608 u

M (4He) = 4.002603 u

c2

= (226.025436 - 222.017608 - 4.002603) x 931.502

= 0.005225 x 931.502 = 4.87 MeV

disintegration energy is less than one

part in 40,000 of the mass of

disintegrating nucleus.

Study of nuclear disintegration energies

provides direct experimental evidence

for mass-energy equivalence principle.

Accurate determination of atomic masses,

actually the mass no. of the atoms. .

Atoms with A < 20 and A > 180, atomic

masses are slightly greater than the

corresponding mass numbers.

While for 20 < A < 180, slightly less.

Mass defect M departure of measured

atomic mass M(A, Z) from the mass no. (A) is

quite significant.

M = M(A, Z) - A

the mass no. 4,

M = + 0.002603 u.

&

for 75As

M = - 0.078403 u.

For very light and very heavy atoms, mass defect is

positive, while in the intermediate region it is negative.

divided by its mass no.

f = M = M(A,Z) - A

A

A

= M(A,Z) - 1

A

Having same sign of mass defect

Measured atomic mass

M (A, Z) = A (1 + f )

10

30

Packing fraction

-10 0

70

50

20

180

60

A

220

100

140

considerations.

then binding fraction

fB = EB = Z MH + N Mn - M(A,Z)

A

A

measured atomic mass M(A, Z)

In mass unit (c2 not required )

It shows relative strengths of their

binding energy.

EB (2H) = MH + Mn - Md .

= (1.007825 + 1.008665 - 2.014102) X 931.5

=2.224 MeV

A

2

For -particle (4He) , since Z = 2, N= 2,

EB (4He) = Z MH + N Mn - MHe

EB (4He) = (2 X 1.007825 + 2 X 1.008665 - 4.002603 ) X 931.5

= 28.3 MeV

fB (4He) = 28.3 = 7.075 MeV/u

4

Since fB (2H) << fB (4He), thus 2H is very weekly

bound than 4He.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

10

EB/A

( MeV/u )

4

0

150

16

180

24

28 // 60

A

90

120

with A

(a) fB for

and rises rapidly with A,

attaining a value of ~ 8 MeV/u for A ~

20.

maximum of

~ 8.7 MeV/u at A ~ 56

(b) For 20 < A < 180 fB is very slight,

almost constant,

mean value ~ 8.5 MeV/u.

(d) For

very

light

fluctuations in fB,

nuclei

rapid

4He, 8Be, 12C,16O etc.,

for which A= 4n where n is an integer.

But less prominent peaks are observed at

values of Z or N = 20, 28,50, 82 and 126.

These are known as magic numbers.

Peaks

show

greater

stability

of

corresponding nuclei relative to nuclei in their

immediate neighborhood.

Nature

of

binding

energy

curve

is

complimentary to packing fraction curve .

MH =1 + fH and Mn = 1 + fn

(where fH = 0.007825 u and fn = 0.008665 u are constant)

then we have

EB = Z ( 1 + fH ) + N (1 + fn ) - M (A, Z)

= ( Z + N ) + Z fH + N fn - A (1 + f )

= A + Z fH + N fn - A - M

where M = A f ,

Hence we get

EB = Z fH + N fn - M

f B = EB =

Z fH + N fn

_ M

A

A

A

= Z f H + N fn

_ f

A

Thus fB increases or decreases as f

decreases or increases.

Graphs variation f and fB are

complementary with A.

Binding fraction curve explains

( qualitatively) -disintegration of

heavy nuclei and also energy release in

nuclear fission and fusion processes.

N uclear size

Rutherford's theory of -particle scattering gives

smallness of nuclear size.

energy

-particles gives deviation from Rutherford scattering

formula at large angles i.e. for small impact parameters b.

When b becomes comparable to nuclear radius R,

-particle feels effect of nuclear force.

Since Rutherford's scattering formula is deduced on the

assumption that force acting on -particle is purely

electrostatic, deviation is expected, this is no longer true.

Putting b = R, we get limiting angle of scattering c

above which ratio of measured scattering cross section

() to that Rutherford's formula (R) will be different from

unity.

Rutherford estimated values of nuclear

magnesium.

order of 10-15 m (not very accurate).

In case of nuclear radius, we assume that

nucleus has spherical shape, because of

short range nuclear force.

However, small deviations from the spherical

shape of certain nuclei have been observed,

due to electric quadrupole moment of nuclei.

(zero for spherical nuclei).

It

distributed. Experiments show that nuclear charge

density c and distribution of nuclear matter (i.e.,

protons and neutrons) is nearly uniform.

then nuclear matter density m is also approximately

constant. Since nuclear mass is almost linearly proportional

to the mass number A, this means

m ~ A/V = constant

i.e. nuclear volume V A. (nucleus with radius R). then

V = 4 R3 A

3

R AI/3

R = r0 A 1/3

where ro is a constant, known as

nuclear radius

parameter.

nuclear mass distribution or

nuclear charge distribution.

Since nuclear charge parameter (i.e. at. no.) Z is almost

linearly proportional to mass no. A and

nuclear charge density c is approximately same

throughout nuclear volume,

distribution of nuclear charge +Ze follow pattern of

nuclear mass distribution.

Hence charge radius and mass radius are very

nearly same (due to strong attractive forces within

nucleus ).

very nearly same for both types of nucleons,

protons and neutrons and hence their distributions

within nuclear volume follow the same pattern.

( proton or -particle )

+Ze acted from outside the nucleus (r > R),

while inside the nucleus (r < R) a negative

potential (due to short range nuclear force).

Where r is the distance from the nuclear

centre.

We assume electrostatic force is not effective

inside nucleus and nuclear force becomes

zero at nuclear surface (r = R).

.

V

- Vc

- - - - - - -

- -

-Vo

- - - R

Vc =E

- - - - r

Vc

= ZZ e2

4 0 r

. At the nuclear surface barrier height is given by

VR = ZZ e2

4 0 R

Radius R is known as potential radius,

slightly greater than charge or mass radius.

e.g. For uranium nucleus with Z = 92 and

R = 8 X 10-15 m , VR = 16.5 MeV for a proton,

while VR = 33.1 MeV for an -particle taking

ro = 1.3 X 10-15 m.

But quantum mechanically (due to uncertainty

principle) position of the particle within the

nucleus is not so well-defined,

i.e. a finite probability of particle to penetrate

barrier, If E < VR .

If particle with an initial energy +E outside the

nucleus reaches the point r = b where Vc = E.

then it will be repelled by electrostatic force of

positive charge of residual nucleus and goaway.

Nuclear radius is expressed in units of 10- 15 m

i.e. femtometer (fm) or Fermi.

distribution is defined as

<r2 > = o r2. 4r2 (r) dr

4r2 (r) dr

where (r) is nuclear charge density.

For a uniformly charged sphere ( =

constant)

of radius R, this gives (since = 0 for r> R)

<r2 > = oR r4 dr

R 2

o r dr

o

R2 = 5 <r2 >

3

by Electron scattering experim ent

In scattering of high energy electrons

by nuclei, no nuclear force acting on

the electrons,

only Coulomb attractive force acts

due to nuclear charge. If de Broglie

wavelength of the electrons is small

compared to the nuclear radius, then

this experiment gives many details

of nuclear charge distribution.

the wavelength of a relativistic electron of rest

mass mo and

total energy E > moc2 is given by

= ch

e [ V(V+2moc2/e)]1/2

where eV = Ek is kinetic energy of the electron, e is

charge.

Substituting values of c, h, e and mo we get

= 12.4Xl03

[V (V + 1.02 x 106) ]

For electrons Ek = 200 MeV,

V = 200 x 106 volts

Ao

1/2

hundred MeV energy can give many

details of nuclear charge distribution.

Accelerator

collimato

r

Deflectin

g magnet

Beam

stopp

er

Accelerator

////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/////////shielding////////////////////////////

////////////////////////////////////////////////////

S

//////////////////////////////

///

Scatterin

///

g

-/-------------------------- T --- chamber

---- ///

--- s

--- pe

///

o-m c

///

et tr

r e

linear accelerator A is deflected by

means of magnet and collimated by

slit, Deflecting magnet directs beam

to target inside scattering chamber.

The elastically scattered beam of

electrons is then analysed by the

large magnetic spectrometer .

electron from a spin-less target at centre of mass

angle is

() =M () {F(q)}2

M () is Mott cross section of elastic scattering from

a point charge +Ze

M () = ( Ze2 )2 cos2/2

( 8oE) sin4/2

where E energy of the electrons in the C.M. system.

F(q) form factor which gives the ratio by which

scattering cross-section is reduced, when the charge +Ze is

spread out over finite volume.

Due to destructive interference between electron waves

scattered from different parts of the target nucleus, F(q)

< 1.

F(q) = 1 (r) exp (i.q.r) d

Ze

= 4 (r) exp (sin qr)r dr

Zeq

where q = k - k' = 1/ (p - p' )

measure of momentum transfer p - p' in elastic

scattering.

| q | depends on the angle of scattering

|q | = 2p sin

2

(r) is charge density within nucleus and

exponential is a phase factor over the volume.

scattering experiment, from the ratio ()/ M().

And using the inverse Fourier transformation,

(r) is determined ( If large number of

measurements for angles from expt.)

If not so possible, we have to assume a form of

density distribution, and best fit with expt. data

obtained by suitably adjusting parameters R1/2 and

a, in the expression. A suitable particular form is

(r) =

o ____________________

I + exp {(r - R1/2)/ a)

This is called Fermi distribution, shown in Fig.

Nuclear Charge

Density

.

Skin

thickness

<---- 4.4 a

------>

90% ----

<----------R1/2-------->

10 % ---Nuclear

Radius

For r = R1/2 , =o /2

where o is charge density at centre (r = 0).

Thus R1/2 is half radius.

Parameter a determines the skin-thickness of nucleus,

in which (r) falls from 0.9 to 0.1 o of nuclear

surface. Hence t = 4.4 a.

If we approximate above Eqn. for uniform charge distribution,

then equivalent

R = roA1/3

where ro = 1.32 x 10-15 m for A < 50

and ro = 1.21 x 10-15 m for A > 50

This confirms that nuclear matter is almost uniformly

distributed within nuclear volume,

if we assume mass and charge radii are equal for all nuclei

a= 0.5 x 10-15 m = 0.5 fm.

nuclei mass with A > 15, charge distribution

has a core of uniform density, surrounded

by a skin thickness 2.3 fm.

The radius of half the maximum density

R1I2 = 1.07 A1/3 fm.

For 4 < A < 15 , no uniform core and

density decreases steadily with increasing r.

Also the charge density in the core region

decreases as Z increases.

N uclear Spin

Protons & neutrons have intrinsic spin

like electrons.

quantized orbital angular momenta about

C.M. of nucleus, like electrons in atom.

nucleus is vector sum of orbital angular

momentum

(L)

and

spin

angular

momentum (S) of nucleus :

I=L+S

pI2 = I (I + 1) 2

pL2 = L (L + 1 ) 2

pS2 = S (S+ 1) ) 2

During measurement, it is largest component

of angular momentum along the direction of

applied electric or magnetic field which is

determined.

For the three cases mentioned above, these

have magnitudes I, L and S in units of 2 .

S = si

Similarly, resultant orbital angular momentum is L

= li

Since si = 1/2 , S can be either integral or halfintegral, depending on whether number of nucleons

A in the nucleus is even or odd.

Since Ij is integral (0, I, 2, etc.), L is integral or

zero.

Thus total angular momentum I of nucleus can be

either integral (for A even) or half odd integral (for

A odd).

nuclear spin.

For ground state Nuclear spin I = 0 (for

even Z, even N nuclei).

This shows the tendency of nucleons inside

the nucleus, to form pairs with equal and

oppositely aligned angular momenta, which

cancel out in pairs for like nucleons.

Measured values of ground state spins of the

nuclei are small integers or half odd integers,

highest measured value being 9/2 which is

small compared to sum of lj and si of all

individual nucleons in the nucleus.

numbers of protons and neutrons are

grouped in pairs of zero spin and orbital

angular momenta so that the core itself has

zero total angular momentum).

The few remaining nucleons outside the core

determine the nuclear spin which is small

number, Integral or half odd integral. .

Spins of excited states of nuclei are deduced

from nuclear disintegration and nuclear

reaction data.

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