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How does trees on the fertile plain obtain their nutrients ?

Or the
cacti in the
desserts ?

Or the algae in the sea ?


Review Question

• Which mode of nutrition do the green


plants carry out?

A. Autotrophic nutrition

B. Heterotrophic nutrition
Sorry! You’re wrong!
• Heterotrophic nutrition is the mode of
nutrition in which organisms have to depend
on other organisms or dead organic matters
as their food sources. Green plants, however,
can make organic food by themselves using
simple inorganic substances.
Very Good!
• Autotrophic nutrition is the mode of nutrition
in which organisms can make organic food by
themselves using simple inorganic
substances.
• The process by which the green plants obtain
nutrients is called :

Photosynthesis
Nature of photosynthesis
• Takes place in Chloroplast
• Necessary factors :
 Carbon dioxide
 Water
 Sunlight
 Chlorophyll
Route of Carbon Dioxide
for Photosynthesis
Chloroplast

Spongy Mesophyll
Cell

Air Space

Stoma

CO2
Chloroplast

Palisade Mesophyll
Cell

Air Space

Stoma

CO2
Light reaction
 Light energy is trapped by chlorophyll in
chloroplast
 Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll splits
water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen
 Oxygen is released as a gas through stoma
to outside
 Hydrogen is fed into dark reaction
e br os ba t hgil f o %
ll yhpor ol hc

blue
green
red

6
Oxygen is produce as the by-product of photosynthesis.
Dark reaction
 No light is required; can take place either
in light or darkness
Hydrogen produced in light reaction
combines with CO2 to form carbohydrates
Water is formed as a by-product
Summary of Photosynthesis
6 CO2 + 6 H20 C6H12 O6 + 6 O2

Light Water Carbon Dioxide


H
Light Reaction Dark Reaction

Oxygen Glucose
(C6H12 O6)
Fate of carbohydrate
products in the plant
carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis

carbohydrates (e.g. glucose)

release energy by respiration


carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis

carbohydrates (e.g. glucose)

convert into starch for storage because


glucose is not a very good storage molecule
carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis

carbohydrates (e.g. glucose)

change into sucrose and is transported


to other parts through phloem
carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis
carbohydrates (e.g. glucose)

fatty acids glycerol

combine to form fats and oils to form cell


membranes and as a food store
carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis
mineral salts from soil
carbohydrates (e.g. glucose)
(e.g. NO3-, SO42- )

amino acids

join together to become


protein molecules
Experiments on
photosynthesis
Destarching
• Reason:
– To avoid any existing starch in the leaves
interfering with the result, and to show that any
starch found after the experiment is produced
during the period of investigation
• Method:
– By placing the plant in dark for at least 48 hours
To test a leaf for the presence
of Starch
boiling
boiling alcohol hot water
water
iodine

turn off turn off


Bunsen Bunsen
burner burner
white tile

Why is the leaf first boiled in water ?


Ans: Because the process can soften the leaf, break
down the cuticle and kill the leaf.
boiling
boiling alcohol hot water
water
iodine

turn off turn off


Bunsen Bunsen
burner burner
white tile

Why is the leaf then boiled in alcohol ?


Ans: To decolourize the leaf (to remove chlorophyll).
boiling
boiling alcohol hot water
water
iodine

turn off turn off


Bunsen Bunsen
burner burner
white tile

Why is it important to turn off the Bunsen burner when you


are heating the alcohol ?
Ans: Because alcohol catches fire easily.
boiling
boiling alcohol hot water
water
iodine

turn off turn off


Bunsen Bunsen
burner burner
white tile

Why is the leaf put in hot water after being boiled in


alcohol ?
Ans: Since the leaf becomes brittle after boiling in
alcohol, so dipping it into hot water enables it to
be softened.
boiling
boiling alcohol hot water
water
iodine

turn off turn off


Bunsen Bunsen
burner burner
white tile

What colour change can be observed if starch is present ?


Ans: The leaf becomes blue-black when iodine solution
is added to it.
To show that Chlorophyll is
necessary for Photosynthesis
purple part

green part

Which part of the leaf turns blue-black when treated with


iodine solution ?
Ans: Only the green part.
purple part

green part

Is chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis ?


Ans: Yes.
purple part

green part

What is the control in this experiment ?


Ans: The green part of the leaf acts as the control.
To show that Carbon
Dioxide is necessary for
Photosynthesis
sunlight

B
A potassium
water hydroxide solution

Why is potassium hydroxide solution put in one of the


flasks ?
Ans: To absorb all the carbon dioxide in flask B.
sunlight

B
A potassium
water hydroxide solution

What happens to each leaf after testing the presence of


starch at the end of the experiment ?
Ans: The leaf in flask A changes to blue-black while the
leaf in flask B stains brown.
sunlight

B
A potassium
water hydroxide solution

What do your results suggest about the relationship


between carbon dioxide and photosynthesis ?
Ans: Carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis.
Factors affecting
the rate of
photosynthesis
 Light intensity
 Rate of Photosynthesis
 Carbon dioxide
concentration
 Rate of Photosynthesis
 Temperature
 Rate of Photosynthesis
Temperature > 40℃
Rate  & Stop soon
If no water, stomata close
no gaseous exchange
photosynthesis ceases
Why is Photosynthesis
important ?
Green plants: the only organisms
capable of trapping light
to manufacture food from
simple inorganic
substances
Why is Photosynthesis
important ?
Green plants(producers) starts the
food chain & provide food for other
organisms
Why is Photosynthesis
important ?
Atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed
& oxygen is released into the atmosphere
which maintains the composition of the
atmosphere constant
Parts of plant where
photosynthesis takes place
Mainly in the leaf because
– it contains a lot of chloroplasts
– it is well adapted for performing
photosynthesis
Internal
Structure of Leaf
cuticle
upper epidermis

palisade mesophyll
chloroplasts

spongy mesophyll

intercellular space
(air space)
guard cell
lower epidermis
cuticle
stoma
Cross-section
of a leaf of
dicotyledon
upper
epidermis
protect internal
tissues from
mechanical
damage and
bacterial &
fungal invasion
Cuticle
• a waxy layer
• prevent
water loss
from the leaf
surface
• protect the
leaf
mesophyll
palisade
mesophyll
(layer)
columnar cells
contains many
closely packed
chloroplasts
together
∴ absorb light
more efficiently
irregular cells
loosely packed
together to leave
numerous
some (fewerlarge air
spaces
than palisade
→allow rapid
mesophyll)
diffusion of gases
chloroplasts for
throughout the leaf
photosynthesis
spongy
mesophyll
(layer)
same as
upper
epidermis
except the
cuticle is
thinner
lower
epidermis
opening which
allows gases
to pass
through it to go
into or out of
the leaf
stoma
(stomata)
guard cells
control the
size of stoma
Stoma

Guard cells

thinner outer wall

thicker inner wall

stoma
vascular
bundle
(vein)
Internal Structure of Leaf
xylem

phloem
xylem

• to transport water
and mineral salts
towards the leaf

• for mechanical
support
phloem

• to transport
organic
substances
(food/sugar/
glucose/
sucrose) away
from the leaf
Adaptation of leaf
to photosynthesis
The leaf is thin
decrease diffusion
distance for gases &
light

The leaf is broad &


flattened
increase surface area
to absorb more
sunlight
Cuticle exists in
upper epidermis and
is transparent
Allows most light to
pass into
photosynthetic
mesophyll tissues
Palisade mesophyll
cells are closely
packed and contain
many chloroplasts
To carry out
photosynthesis more
efficiently
Spongy mesophyll
cells are loosely
packed with numerous
large air spaces
To allow rapid diffusion
of gases throughout
the leaf
Numerous stomata
on lower epidermis
To allow rapid
gaseous exchange
with the
atmosphere
Extensive vein system
• Allow sufficient
water to reach the
cells in the leaf
• To carry food away to
other parts of the
plant
Mineral requirements
in plants
• In order to synthesize amino acids, nitrate ions
which must be taken into the plant from the soil
through the root
• Other minerals are also necessary to maintain
the life of the plant (N, Mg, P, K, S, etc)
The importance of nitrogen
• For synthesis of proteins, chlorophyll, etc
• Taken in form of nitrate ions
• Deficiency symptoms:
– Little growth ( - no protein made)
– Yellowing of leaves ( - no chlorophyll made)
The importance of magnesium
• Essential component of chlorophyll
• Deficiency symptoms:
– Yellowing of leaves (no chlorophyll
made)
– Poor growth (no food manufactured
because of lack of chlorophyll)
Use of fertilizers in
agriculture
• Continuous harvesting crops removes valuable
mineral salts from soil
∴ Fertilizers are added to replace such loss
• Two kinds of fertilizers:
– Natural fertilizers
– Chemical fertilizers
Natural fertilizers
• From manure
• Organic compounds in it are
decomposed by the bacteria in
soil to form mineral salts
Chemical fertilizers

• Mainly nitrogenous and phosphorous


compounds manufactured artificially
Comparison between natural
and chemical fertilizers
Natural fertilizers Chemical fertilizers
Contain humus which can No humus so cannot improve
improve soil texture soil texture
Less soluble in water so less Very soluble in water so more
likely to be washed away likely to be washed away
Comparison between natural
and chemical fertilizers
Natural fertilizers Chemical fertilizers
Much cheaper Very expensive
Less soluble in water so more Very soluble in water so
difficult to be absorbed easier to be absorbed
Time is needed for the More readily to be used by
decomposition to complete the plants
before nutrients are available
to plants
~ END ~