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X. Deformation and .

Mountain Building
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Plate Tectonics and Stress


Rock Deformation
Geologic Structures
Origin of Mountains
Continental Crust

Tectonic Stresses Large Scale Strain


of the Crust i.e., Geologic Structures
Crust:
Rigid,
Thin

Inner core: Solid iron


Outer core: Liquid iron,
convecting (magnetic field)
Mantle (Asthenosphere) :
Solid iron-magnesium
silicate, plastic, convecting
Crust (Lithosphere): Rigid, thin
5-30km

Mantle:
Plastic,
Convecting

Tectonics and
Structural Geology
Tectonic Stresses
resulting from
Internal Energy
(heat driving convection)
Strains (deforms) the Mantle
and Crust
Bends

Rocks, i.e.,
ductile strain (Folds)
Breaks Rock, i.e.,
brittle strain (Joints) and
Moves large blocks along
Faults and
Releases energy
Earthquakes

Fig. 10-CO, p. 216

Folds and Faults (Palmdale, Ca)

See Fig. 10-2a, p. 219

Eastern Pennsylvania

Northwestern
Africa

Stresses
at Plate
Boundaries

Divergent
(Tensional)
|

Convergent
(Compressional)

|
Transform
(Shear)

e.g., Pacific NW

Geologic
Structures

Different stresses result in


various forms of strain
(geologic structures)

Folds (compressive
stresses may cause ductile
strain)
Faults (Any type of stress
may cause brittle strain.
The type of fault depends
on the type of stress)

Stikes and Dips are used to


identify geologic structures

Strike and Dip

Define and map the orientation of


planar features

Bedding planes (sedimentary rocks)


Foliation
Joints
Faults
Dikes
Sills
Ore Veins
Fig. 10-4, p. 221

Strike and Dip

Strike: The line of


intersection between the
plane and a horizontal
surface
Dip: Angle that the plane
makes with that horizontal
plane

Strike and Dip


Map Symbol

Fig. 10-4, p. 221

Sipping Bedding Planes

Youngest (top)

P: Permian
P: Pennsylvanian
M: Mississippian
D: Devonian
S: Silurian
O: Ordovician
C: Cambrian

Oldest (bottom)

Sedimentary Rocks Dip in the


direction of younger rocks

D
S
O

Deciphering the Geology of Ohio


Using Dipping Bedding Planes

Beds Dip 2o, West


Younger rocks, West
Mirror image east of
Sandusky?
Sandstone

M 2o

Shale

2o

Limestone

Anticline (fold)

Anticline (fold)

Syncline (fold)

Plunging
Anticline

Fold Terminology
Axis

Axis
Axial Plane
Plunging
Age of rocks
and
outcrops

Axis

Plunging Anticline, Colorado

Eastern Pennsylvania

Folds and faults resulting from


compressive stresses

Anticlines (many plunging)


Synclines (many plunging)
Reverse faults
Thrust faults

Domes and Basins

Bedrock
Geology of the
Michigan Basin

During and after


the deposition of
Michigans
sedimentary rocks
The crust warped
downward
Exposing younger
rocks in the center
and
Older rocks on the
rim (e.g. Toledo)

Brittle Strain Joints

When shallow crust is strained


rocks tend to exhibit brittle strain

Sheet Joints

Defining Fault Orientation

Strike of fault plane


parallels the

fault trace and


fault scarp

Direction of Dip of
the fault plane
indicates the
Hanging wall block
Fig. 10-11a, p. 227

Fault:

Movement occurring along a discontinuity


Brittle strain and subsequent movement as a
result of stress
Fault
terminology

Faults

Fault: When
movement
occurs along
a discontinuity
Fault type
depends on
the type of
stress

Normal Faults

Normal Faults, Horsts and Grabens

Structures at Divergent Boundaries

Tensional Stresses cause brittle strain and


formation of sets of normal faults
i.e., Horsts and Grabens

Horsts and Grabens

Older Rocks are exposed along the ridges


formed by the horsts
Horst

Graben

Horst

Graben

Younger rocks lie beneath the grabens


Sediment fills in the linear valleys

Nevada

Washboard
topography is the result
of Horsts and Grabens
A.k.a, Basin and Range
E.g., Humbolt Range
E.g., Death Valley
(Graben)

Horst and Graben, Nevada

Horst
Graben

Humboldt Range, Northern Nevada

Fig. 10-15b, p. 233

Horst and Graben, Nevada

Horst
Graben

Humboldt Range, Northern Nevada

Reverse and Thrust Faults

Compressive stress
causes the hanging
wall to move upward
relative to the foot wall
Reverse Fault
At convergent plate
boundaries ancient
rocks can be thrust
over younger rocks
Thrust Fault

Structures at a Passive
Continental Margin

Resulting from continental breakup


E.g., The Americas and Africa

Salt Domes: e.g., Texas

Rising of less
dense salt
Stretches overlying
crust
Forming normal
faults and
Oil traps

Structural Oil Traps

Thrust Fault:

Glacier NP, Montana

Old
Younger

Structures at a Convergent Boundary

Structures within Mountain Belts

Compressional and Tensional


Structures

E.g., The Apls

Intense folding and thrusting of


sedimentary rocks

Strike Slip Faults

Physiographic Features

San Andreas Fault

What type of fault is this?


What other features are
associated with the fault?