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Reggae Ines Maria B.

Djamaekha Dee A. Jaylo
 An understanding of the effects of halogenation
has been useful in the important area of drug

 In order to be effective a drug must be designed to
reach its site of action. In many cases, this
involves penetration of one or more membrane
barriers between the site of application and the
receptor location.
 Because the cell membrane is a lipid bilayer with a
nonpolar interior, it tends to resist penetration by
molecules that are not fat soluble; the more lipid
soluble a molecule is, the better it will diffuse
across the membrane. Such lipid solubility can
sometimes be increased by halogen substitution.
 Molecule Cortisol
- a corticosteroid hormone secreted by the
adrenal cortex.

 Biological Functions :
- Helps regulate carbohydrate and protein
metabolism and salt balance.
- Inhibit inflammation.
Danica Rose P. Macaraya
Cheyenne Christine M. Villamor
The alcohol is absorbed through the membranes in a
person's mouth, throat, stomach, and intestines. Once
absorbed by the body, the alcohol passes immediately into
the bloodstream, where it circulates until it is expelled
through evaporation in the lungs. Evaporation occurs
because alcohol is "volatile" in a solution, meaning that its
molecules do not combine with the liquid that it mixes with.
Due to this volatility, as the blood passes through
 Breathalyzer Test

- based on the oxidation of ethyl alcohol to acetic

acid using potassium dichromate.
- test for estimating alcohol in the blood, whether
administered in the field by having the subject
breathe into a plastic bag or more precisely in
a lab
A breathalyzer consists of a collection device, a "straw"
attached to a cylinder. The cylinder contains two vials, which
contain a solution of sulfuric acid, potassium dichromate, silver
nitrate and water. The individual being tested blows into the
straw for approximately two to four seconds. The object is to
test the air from deep in the lungs, which will produce the most
accurate reading. The expelled air travels into the vials, where
the silver nitrate acts as a catalyst to initiate and speed up the
analysis. The first thing that happens is that the sulfuric acid
removes the alcohol from the air.
Overall Reaction :
 Potassium Dichromate

- a very vivid reddish-orange substance that

changes into green as the ethyl alcohol is oxidized
and Cr6+ of the orange red dichromate is reduced
to green Cr3+
Chromium Trioxide(CrO3)
- a dark red/orange brown water-soluble solid.
It is stable by itself, however, it is a strong
oxidant when mixed with other substances that
can be oxidized.

- a strong oxidizing agent that is not soluble in

most organic solvents and tends to explode in
the presence of organic compounds and
solvents. In water, it forms chromic acid and
anhydrides, from which salts such as sodium
dichromate (Na2Cr2O7) and pyridinium
dichromate are commercially available.
Sodium Dichromate ( Na2Cr2O7 )

-the salt is usually handled as its

dihydrate (Na2Cr2O7·2H2O)

-poisonous red-orange crystalline

compound used as an oxidizing agent
Chromium Trioxide and sodium dichromate
are common oxidizing agents which oxidize
primary alcohols to carboxylic acids and
secondary alcohol to ketones.
CrO3 H+

Hexanol Hexanoic Acid

Na2Cr2O7 H+

Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone
Pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC)

- a reagent that stops the oxidation of

primary alcohol at the aldehyde stage


Hexanol Hexanal