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Fluid Mechanics

Gas

Liquids

Statics

F 0

i

N2, etc.

Water, Oils,

Alcohols,

etc.

Stability

Dynamics

F 0 , Flows

i

Characteristics of Fluids

Large molecular spacing relative to a solid

Weak intermolecular cohesive forces

Can not resist a shear stress in a stationary

state

Will take the shape of its container

Generally considered a continuum

Viscosity distinguishes different types of fluids

The density of a fluid is defined as mass per unit volume.

v

m = mass, and v = volume.

Different fluids can vary greatly in density

Liquids densities do not vary much with pressure and temperature

Gas densities can vary quite a bit with pressure and temperature

Density of water at 4 C : 1000 kg/m3

Density of Air at 4 C : 1.20 kg/m3

Alternatively, Specific Volume:

Pressure

be exerted on an object

submerged in a static fluid is

one that tends to compress

the

object from all sides.

Suppose you are standing directly behind

someone who steps back and accidentally

stomps on your foot with the heel of one

shoe. Would you

be better off if that person were (a) a large

professional basketball player wearing

sneakers (b) a petite woman wearing spikeheeled shoes?

Pascal's principle

Pascals law: a change in the pressure

applied to a fluid is transmitted

undiminished to every point of the fluid and

to the walls of the container.

The pressure at the bottom of a filled

glass of water (1 000 kg/m3) is P. The

water is poured out and the glass is

filled with ethyl alcohol (806 kg/m3).

The pressure at the bottom of the

glass is (a) smaller than P

(b) equal to P (c) larger than P (d)

indeterminate.

exerts a force on a small piston that has a circular

cross section and a radius of 5.00 cm. This pressure is

transmitted by a liquid to a piston that has a radius of

15.0 cm. What force must the compressed air exert to

lift a car weighing 13 300 N? What air pressure

produces this force?

Archimedess principle - the magnitude of the buoyant

force always equals the weight of the fluid displaced by

the object.

Fluid Dynamics

Ideal fluid flow

1. The fluid is nonviscous. In a nonviscous fluid, internal

friction is neglected. An object moving through the fluid

experiences no viscous force.

2. The flow is steady. In steady (laminar) flow, the velocity

of the fluid at each point remains constant.

3. The fluid is incompressible. The density of an

incompressible fluid is constant.

4. The flow is irrotational. In irrotational flow, the fluid has

no angular momentum about any point. If a small paddle

wheel placed anywhere in the fluid does not rotate about

the wheels center of mass, then the flow is irrotational.

Bernoullis Equation

tube, can be used to measure the flow speed of an

incompressible fluid. Determine the flow speed at

point 2 if the pressure difference P1 - P2 is known.

The specific weight of fluid is its weight per unit volume.

Specific weight characterizes the weight of the fluid system

Specific weight of water at 4 C : 9.80 kN/m3

Specific weight of air at 4 C : 11.9 N/m3

The specific gravity of fluid is the ratio of the density of the fluid to

the density of water @ 4 C.

SG

H 2O

A liquid such as Mercury has a high specific gravity, 13.2

The ratio is unitless.

Density of water at 4 C : 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity:

. A fluid can not resist a shear and under shear begins to flow. The

shearing stress and shearing strain can be related with a relationship of

the following form for common fluids such as

du

dy

velocity of the fluid and y is the vertical coordinate.

Viscosity: Measurements

A Capillary Tube Viscosimeter is one method of measuring

the viscosity of the fluid.

Viscosity Varies from Fluid to Fluid and is

dependent on temperature, thus temperature is measured as

well.

Units of Viscosity are Ns/m2 or lbs/ft2

viscosity

Used in the flow equations

The units are of L2/T or m2/s and ft2/s

Evaporation occurs in a fluid when liquid molecules at the surface have

sufficient momentum to overcome the intermolecular cohesive forces and escape

to the atmosphere.

Vapor Pressure is that pressure exerted on the fluid by the vapor in a closed

saturated system where the number of molecules entering the liquid are the same

as those escaping. Vapor pressure depends on temperature and type of fluid.

Boiling occurs when the absolute pressure in the fluid reaches the vapor pressure.

Boiling occurs at approximately 100 C, but it is not only a function of temperature,

but also of pressure. For example, in Colorado Spring, water boils at temperatures

less than 100 C.

Cavitation is a form of

Boiling due to low pressure

locally in a flow.

Surface Tension

At the interface between a liquid and a gas or two immiscible liquids, forces

develop forming an analogous skin or membrane stretched over the

fluid mass which can support weight.

This skin is due to an imbalance of cohesive forces. The interior of the fluid is

in balance as molecules of the like fluid are attracting each other while on the

interface there is a net inward pulling force.

Surface tension is the intensity of the molecular attraction per unit length along

any line in the surface.

Surface tension is a property of the liquid type, the temperature, and the other

fluid at the interface.

This membrane can be broken with a surfactant which reduces the surface

tension.

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