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PH0101 UNIT-5 LECTURE 7

Introduction
Types of battery
Lithium battery
Li-ion battery principle, construction and
working
Advantage, disadvantage and applications

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

1. Introduction
Batteries definition:
Two
or
more
electrochemical
cells,
electrically
interconnected, each of which contains two electrodes and an
electrolyte. The redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions that
occur at these electrodes convert electrochemical energy into
electrical energy.
In everyday usage, 'battery' is also used to refer to a single
cell. The solid-state batteries are the batteries in which the
electrolyte is in solid state, which is responsible for the
conduction of ions from one electrode to other electrode.
In 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the first modern battery.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

2. Types of batteries
Basically batteries can be classifieds as two types as primary
batteries and secondary batteries.
Primary batteries
In primary batteries, the electrochemical reaction is not
reversible.
During discharging the chemical compounds are permanently
changed and electrical energy is released until the original
compounds are completely exhausted.
Thus the cells can be used only once.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

Secondary batteries
In secondary batteries, the electrochemical reaction is
reversible and the original chemical compounds can be
reconstituted by the application of an electrical potential
between the electrodes injecting energy into the cell.
Such cells can be discharged and recharged many times.

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

3. Lithium battery

Lithium is the lightest of metals and it can float on water.

The electrochemical properties of lithium are excellent


and it is also a highly reactive material.
These properties gives Lithium the potential to achieve
very high energy and power densities in high-density battery
applications such as automotive and standby power.
Lithium batteries are primary batteries in which lithiun
metal (or) lithium compound acts as a Anode. A lithuim
cell can produce voltage from 1.5 V to about 3 V based
on
the types of materials used.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

There are two types of lithium-based batteries available.


1. Lithium batteries
2. Lithium-ion batteries

In lithium batteries, a pure lithium metallic element is


used as anode. These types of batteries are not
rechargeable.

In lithium-ion batteries, lithium compounds are used


as anode.

These batteries are known as re-chargeable


batteries. Therefore, Lithium ion batteries are
considered as best than pure Lithium based
batteries.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

4. Lithium-ion battery (Li-ion Battery)


Li-ion batteries are secondary batteries.
The battery consists of a anode of Lithium, dissolved as
ions, into a carbon.
The cathode material is made up from Lithium liberating
compounds, typically the three electro-active oxide
materials,

Lithium Cobalt-oxide (LiCoO2 )


Lithium Manganese-oxide (LiMn2 O4 )
Lithium Nickel-oxide (LiNiO2)

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

Principle
During the charge and discharge processes, lithium ions are
inserted or extracted from interstitial space between atomic
layers within the active material of the battery.

Simply, the Li-ion is transfers between anode and cathode


through lithium Electrolyte.

Since neither the anode nor the cathode materials essentially


change, the operation is safer than that of a Lithium
metal battery.

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

Li- ion Electrolyte

Li-Ion battery Principle


PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture7

Construction

Li-ion cell has a four-layer structure.

A positive electrode made with Lithium Cobalt Oxide


has a current collector made of thin aluminum foil cathode

A negative electrode made with specialty carbon has a


current collector of thin copper foil anode

A separator is a fine porous polymer film.

An electrolyte made with lithium salt in an organic


solvent.

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Construction cont..

The electrolytes are selected in such a way that there


should be an effective transport of Li-ion to the cathode
during discharge.

The type of conductivity of electrolyte is ionic in


nature rather than electronic

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Working
The traditional batteries are based on galvanic action but
Lithium ion secondary battery depends on an "intercalation"
mechanism.
This involves the insertion of lithium ions into the crystalline
lattice of the host electrode without changing its crystal
structure.
These electrodes have two key properties. One is the open
crystal structure, which allow the insertion or extraction of
lithium ions and the second is the ability to accept
compensating electrons at the same time. Such electrodes
are called intercalation
hosts.
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Working Cont
The chemical reaction that takes place inside the battery
is as follows, during charge and discharge operation:

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The lithium ion is inserted and exerted


into the lattice structure of anode and
cathode
during
charging
and
discharging
During discharge current flows through
external circuit and light glows
During charging, no the electrons flows
in the opposite direction
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During charging, lithium in positive electrode material is


ionized and moves from layer to layer and inserted into
the negative electrode.
During discharge Li ions are dissociated from the
anode
and migrate across the electrolyte and are
inserted into
the crystal structure of the host compound
of cathode.
At the same time the compensating electrons travel in
the external circuit and are accepted by the host to
balance
the reaction.
The process is completely reversible. Thus the lithium
ions pass back and forth between the electrodes during
charging and discharging.
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Because of this reason, the lithium ion batteries are called


Rocking chair, Swing cells.
A typical Li-ion battery can store 150 watt-hours of
electricity in 1 kilogram of battery as
compared to lead acid
batteries can sore only 25 watt-hours of electricity in one
kilogram
All rechargeable batteries suffer from self-discharge
when stored or not in use.
Normally, there will be a three to five percent of selfdischarge in lithium ion batteries for 30 days of storage.
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5. Advantage, disadvantage and applications


Advantages
They have high energy density than other rechargeable
batteries
They are less weight
They produce high voltage out about 4 V as compared
with other batteries.
They have improved safety, i.e. more resistance to
overcharge
No liquid electrolyte means they are immune from leaking.
Fast charge and discharge rate
Disadvantage
They are expensive
They are not available in standard cell types.
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Applications

The Li-ion batteries are used in cameras, calculators

They are used in cardiac pacemakers and other


implantable device

They are used in telecommunication equipment,


instruments, portable radios and TVs, pagers

They are used to operate laptop computers and


mobile phones and aerospace application
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