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Electronics1

A Review

Clipper

Clipping circuit: A wave shaping circuit which


controls the shape of the output waveform by
removing or clipping a portion of the applied
wave.
Half wave rectifier is the simplest example. (It
clips negative half cycle).
Also referred as voltage limiters/ amplitude
selectors/ slicers.

Two Types of Clippers

Series Clippers
contains a power diode in

series with the load


connected at the end
of the circuit

Shunt or Parallel Clippers


contains a diode in parallel

with the resistive load

Clampers

designed to shift the input waveform


either above or below the DC reference
level without altering the waveform
shape.
can also be referred as DC restorers
and level shifters.

Two Types of Clampers

Positive Clamper:
This type of clamping circuit shifts the

input waveform in a positive direction, as a


result the waveform lies above a DC
reference voltage.

Negative Clamper:
This type of clamping circuit shifts the

input waveform in a negative direction, as


a result the waveform lies below a DC
reference voltage

Example of Clamper Circuit

Negative Clamper

Example of Clamper Circuit

Positive Clamper

Voltage Multipliers
Voltage multiplier circuits are employed
to maintain a relatively low transformer
peak voltage while stepping up the
peak output voltage to two, three, four
or more times the peak rectified
voltage.
Voltage Doubler

Voltage Multipliers
Voltage Tripler and Quadrupler

Zener Diodes

Two Types of Reverse Breakdown


Avalanche breakdown breakdown voltage

greater than 5V
Zener breakdown breakdown voltage less
than 5V.

Zener Diodes

A zener diode is a specially


constructed diode designed to operate
with a reverse-bias current.

Sample problem

In the voltage regulator circuit shown


below, the Zener diode current is to be
limited to the range mA

a. Find the range of possible load current


b. Find the range of possible load resistance
c. Find the power rating required for the load
resistor

Zener Diodes

The
temperature coefficient ( _%/C)
specifies the percent change in zener
voltage for each degree centigrade
change in temperature.

Where:
= nominal zener voltage at 25C.
= temperature coefficient
= change in temperature

Sample problem

An 8.2 V zener diode (8.2 V at 25C)


has a positive temperature coefficient
of 0.05%/C. What is the zener voltage
at 60C?

Varactor Diodes

Varactor diodes are also known as


variable-capacitance diodes because
the junction capacitance varies with
the amount of reverse bias voltage.

Transistor

A three terminal solid state device


which is capable of amplifying signals.

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

Advantages over tubes

Smaller and light-weight


No heater requirement or heater loss
Rugged construction
More efficient since less power was
absorbed by the device
Instantly available for use
Requiring no warm-up period
Lower operating voltages were possible

BJT

Transistor construction:

A three-layer semiconductor device


consisting of either two n-type and one ptype layer material, or two p-type and one
n-type layer material.
emitter heavily doped
base lightly doped
collector lightly doped

The Two Types of BJT Transistors:


pnp

npn
n

n
C

Cross Section

B
Cross Section

B
Schematic
Symbol

Schematic
Symbol

Collector doping is usually ~ 106


Base doping is slightly higher ~ 107 108
Emitter doping is much higher ~ 1015

Transistor operation:
pnp
E

The magnitude of the base current is typically on the


order of A, as compared to mA for the emitter and
collector. This is due to the very thin
n-type material
which has low conductivity.

Transistor configurations:
Common
Base Configuration

- used for impedance matching


applications,
especially for low to high
impedance conversion
E

Transistor configurations:
Common
Emitter Configuration

- most useful configuration for amplifier


application
C
B
E

Transistor configurations
Common
Collector Configuration

- also called the emitter follower configuration


- also for impedance matching application useful
for high to low impedance conversation
- most commonly used for impedance matching
C
B

Transistor parameters:
Alpha
()

- the common base current amplification


factor
- the ratio of the collector current change
to the
change in emitter current, assuming
that the
collector base voltage is constant
- the value of ranges from 0.9 to 0.999

Transistor parameters:
Beta
()
- the common emitter forward current amplification
factor
- the ratio of the collector current to the base current
- the value of ranges from 20 to 800

Gamma ()
- the common collector forward current amplification
factor
- the ratio of change in emitter current to the base
current

Modes of Operation
Active:

Most important mode of operation

Central to amplifier operation


The region where current curves are practically flat
BC is reversed biased; BE is forward biased

Saturation: Barrier potential of the junctions cancel each other out


causing a virtual short

Cutoff:

BC and BE are forward biased

Current is reduced to zero


Ideal transistor behaves like an open switch
BC and BE are reversed biased

Transistor biasing and


regions of operation:
Base-Emitter

BaseCollector

Operating
Mode

Application

Forward

Reverse

Active

Amplifier

Forward

Forward

Saturation

Switching

Reverse

Reverse

Cut-off

Switching

Reverse

Forward

Cut-off

Switching

Comparison of Transistor Configuration


Parameter

CB

CE

CC

Input
Impedance

low

moderate

high

Output
Impedance

high

moderate

low

Current Gain
(Ai)

low

moderate

high

Voltage Gain
(Av)

high

moderate

low

moderate

high

low

none

180

none

Power Gain (Ap)


Phase Shift

Questions

What are the bias conditions of the


1.
base-emitter and base-collector junctions
for a transistor to operate as an amplifier?
Ans: BE = Forward ; BC = reversed
2. Which is the largest of the three
transistor currents?
Ans:
3. If the collector current is 1mA and the
base current is 10A, what is the emitter
current?
Ans: 1.01mA

Questions
Determine and for a transistor where
4.
and .
Ans: ;

Biasing

. Fixed-bias

circuit

Emitter-stabilized bias circuit

Voltage divider bias circuit

DC bias with voltage feedback

Fixed Bias

Saturation

When the transistor is operating in


saturation, current through the
transistor is at its maximum possible
value.
V
ICsat CC
R
C

VCE 0 V

Ch.4 Summary

Load Line Analysis


The load line end points are:

The Q-point is the operating point where the value of RB sets the
value of IB that controls the values of VCE and IC .

Ch.4 Summary

The Effect of VCC on the Q-Point

Ch.4 Summary

The Effect of RC on the Q-Point

Ch.4 Summary

The Effect of IB on the Q-Point

Ch.4 Summary

Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit


Adding a resistor
(RE) to the emitter
circuit stabilizes
the bias circuit.

Ch.4 Summary

Voltage Divider Bias


This is a very stable bias circuit.
The currents and
voltages are
nearly
independent of
any variations in
.

Ch.4 Summary

DC Bias With Voltage Feedback


Another way to improve
the stability of a bias
circuit is to add a
feedback path from
collector to base.
In this bias circuit the
Q-point is only slightly
dependent on the
transistor beta, .

Sample problem
Find the following for the circuit shown
below:
(a). IB and IC

(b). VCE
(c). VB
(d). VC
(e). VBC

Field Effect Transistor

FET is uni-polar device i.e. operation


depends on only one type of charge
carriers (h or e) . It is a Voltage
controlled Device (gate voltage
controls drain current)

BJT and FET Comparison


Parameters

BJT

FET

Size

Bigger than FET

Generally smaller

Principle of operation

bipolar

unipolar

Types

NPN & PNP

n channel
p - channel

Output current

current- controlled

voltage - controlled

Input bias circuit

Forward bias

Reverse bias

Input Impedance

Relatively low ( due


to FB)

Very high ( due to RB)

Stability

Less stable

More stable

Types of Field Effect Transistors


(The Classification)

JFET

FET
MOSFET (IGFET)

Enhancement
MOSFET
n-Channel
EMOSFET

p-Channel
EMOSFET

n-Channel JFET
p-Channel JFET

Depletion
MOSFET
n-Channel
DMOSFET

p-Channel
DMOSFET

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Junction Field Effect


Transistor
(JFET)

JFET Construction
TherearetwotypesofJFETs:nchannelandpchannel.
Thenchannelismorewidelyused.

Therearethreeterminals:Drain(D)andSource(S)areconnectedtonchannel
Gate(G)isconnectedtotheptypematerial
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SYMBOLS
Drain

Drain

Gate

Gate

Source
n-channel JFET

Source
p-channel JFET
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CHARACTERISTICS

At the pinch-off point:


any further increase in VGS does not produce any increase in ID.

VGS at pinch-off is denoted as Vp.


ID is at saturation or maximum. It is referred to as I DSS.
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ID IDSS

AsVGSbecomesmorenegative:
theJFETwillpinchoffatalowervoltage(Vp).
IDdecreases(ID<IDSS)eventhoughVDSisincreased.
EventuallyIDwillreach0A.VGSatthispointiscalledVporVGS(off).
AlsonotethatathighlevelsofVDStheJFETreachesabreakdownsituation.
IDwillincreasesuncontrollablyifVDS>VDSmax.
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Transfer (Transconductance) Curve

From this graph it is easy to determine the value of ID for a given value of VGS
It is also possible to determine IDSS and VP by looking at the knee where VGS is 0
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Metal Oxide Semiconductor


Field Effect Transistor
(MOSFET)

MOSFET

There are two types of MOSFETs:


Depletion mode MOSFET (D-MOSFET)
Operates in Depletion mode the same way as a JFET when
VGS 0
Operates in Enhancement mode like E-MOSFET when
VGS > 0
Enhancement Mode MOSFET (E-MOSFET)
Operates in Enhancement mode
IDSS = 0 until VGS > VT (threshold voltage)

Depletion Mode MOSFET


(D-MOSFET)

Depletion Mode MOSFET Construction

TheDrain(D)andSource(S)leadsconnecttothetondopedregions
TheseNdopedregionsareconnectedviaannchannel
ThisnchannelisconnectedtotheGate(G)viaathininsulatinglayerofSiO2
Thendopedmaterialliesonapdopedsubstratethatmayhaveanadditionalterminal
connectioncalledSS
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D-MOSFET Symbols

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Basic Operation
A D-MOSFET may be biased to operate in two modes:
the Depletion mode or the Enhancement mode

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Enhancement Mode
MOSFET
(E-MOSFET)

Enhancement Mode MOSFET Construction

TheDrain(D)andSource(S)connecttothetondopedregions
Thesendopedregionsarenotconnectedviaannchannelwithoutanexternalvoltage
TheGate(G)connectstothepdopedsubstrateviaathininsulatinglayerofSiO2
Thendopedmaterialliesonapdopedsubstratethatmayhaveanadditionalterminal
connectioncalledSS
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E-MOSFET Symbols

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Basic Operation
The Enhancement mode MOSFET only operates in the enhancement mode.

VGS is always positive


IDSS = 0 when VGS < VT
As VGS increases above VT, ID increases
If VGS is kept constant and VDS is increased, then ID saturates (IDSS)
The saturation level, VDSsat is reached.
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Summary Table
JFET

D-MOSFET

E-MOSFET

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FETs transconductance

(gm) the ratio of a change in drain


current to a change in gate-to-source
voltage in FET; or in general, the ratio
of the output current to the input
voltage.

FET Biasing
General Relationships
for JFET and DMOSFET
for EMOSFET

Forward transconductance

Sample problem

Sample problem