PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF POWER CONTROL IN CDMA, GSM, WCDMA UNDER PERFECT POWER, IMPERFECT POWER AND ADAPTIVE POWER
AND APPLICATIONS TO ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF CDMA SYSTEMS WITH PERFECT POWER, IMPERFECT POWER AND ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL
CDMA technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the capacity of cellular radio systems compared with FDMA and TDMA systems. However, this improvement is dependent upon the effectiveness of the power control system, especially on the reverse link. In the absence of power control, a BS would receive a much stronger signal from a subscriber unit that is geographically close to it than from a subscriber unit that is farther away.
Consider a CDMA WLL single cell system consists of subscriber units transmitting to a BS receiver on the reverse-link
• The signal transmitted from the ith user to its BS is given by
• The signal at the output of the matched filter is given by
PERFECT POWER CONTROL
• To reduce the near-far problem, as well as the interference from other users and hence to increase the capacity of CDMA WLL system, it is important to apply a power control on the reverse link so that the received power from each user at the BS is controlled to be the constant target power, The outage probability of the single cell system is defined as
IMPERFECT POWER CONTROL
• In a practical system, the power control is not perfect. So, the received signal power from the ith user at its BS will differ from the target power level. This power error is a random variable with a standard deviation .
• CDMA technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the capacity of WLL systems compared with FDMA and TDMA systems. However, this improvement is dependent upon the effectiveness of the power control system, especially on the reverse link. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the reverse-link capacity of CDMA WLL systems in terms of outage probability, taking into account the power control error, is obtained. The results show that the capacity degradation, due to imperfect power control, is about 25.8%,
ADAPTIVE STEP POWER CONTROL
• The Adaptive Step Power Control (ASPC) is a closed loop power control mechanism that was originally proposed for uplink transmission using adaptive step sizes as opposed to fixed step sizes, in order to achieve faster convergence towards the target SIR. In our study, we have adapted this algorithm for downlink transmission using the following
The mobile stations measure the observed value of the SIR at each iteration and compare them with a preset threshold value. If the observed SIR is larger than the threshold, then the mobile sends a power–down command to the base station. Otherwise, it sends a power–up comand. The first power update command is interpreted as a fixed step modification, as suggested . However, we adapt the step size dynamically if successive feedback commands request additional change in the power level in the same direction, to ensure faster convergence. The base station interprets the power control command from each mobile station and updates the transmit power accordingly. The power control updates take place in multiple steps of different sizes.
ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM
MODIFIED ADAPTIVE STEP POWER CONTROL (WITH BUFFER) The steps of operation in the M-ASPC algorithm are as follows: 1) The mobile stations measure the observed value of the SIR at each iteration and compare them with the preset lower and upper critical threshold values.
2) If the observed SIR is smaller than the lower critical threshold, then the mobile sends a power–up command to the base station. The first power update command is interpreted as a fixed step modification; however, we dynamically adjust the step size if successive feedback commands request additional change in the power level in the same direction. 3) If the observed threshold is between the lower and the upper critical threshold values, then the mobile does not send any control signal to the base station. Thus, we eliminate the oscillations observed at low outage percentages in MSPC. 4) The increment size is chosen larger than the decrement size. This ensures that mobiles in outage can quickly come out of outage.
OUTAGE PERCENTAGE VERSUS NUMBER OF ITERATIONS FOR THE MULTI-STEP SIR BASED POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM
• OUTAGE PERCENTAGE VERSUS NUMBER OF ITERATIONS FOR THE ADAPTIV STEP POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM
OUTAGE PERCENTAGE VERSUS NUMBER OF ITERATIONS FOR THE MOPDIFIED ADAPTIVE STEP POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM
OUTAGE PERCENATGE VERSUS NUMBER OF ITERATIONS FOR THE DIFFERENT ADAPTIVE STEP POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM
• M-ASPC algorithm outperformed both ASPC and MSPC in terms of rate of reduction of outage probability and convergence. •
POWER CONTROL IN GSM
• The control of the power transmitted by the radio base stations has been proposed to reduce the output power level and thus to reduce interference and increase the life time of the equipment. The reduction of interference implies some improvements of the quality or allows to increase the capacity of a GSM cellular system.
The basic algorithm is :
• The theoretical analysis has shown the influence of the different power control algorithm settings in presence of various interference environments By reducing this spreading, the network capacity can be increased or the mean communication quality improved. A stability study has demonstrated that unstable states exist, also when the parameters are assigned in their domains of availability
THE IMPACT OF POWER CONTROL ON WCDMA
Within the broad field of communications, considerable interest has been drawn towards High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) the past few years owing to their appealing features. Among the multitude of services that HAP systems are able to provide, HAPs have the potential to deliver 3G communication services. In this letter, we examine the impact of both imperfect power control and multiuser detection (MUD) on the uplink of a WCDMA HAP system.
• We also assume that users are positioned inside each cell according to a uniform distribution. Additionally, the number of users n in each cell is Poisson distributed •
where λ is the average number of users per cell.
• The quality of the uplink may be represented in terms of the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio Eb/N0
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL IN WCDMA
The capacity of WCDMA systems is limited by the total interference generated by other users . Hence, a mechanism to ensure that the transmission signal power from every user is kept at minimum is essential for WCDMA systems. Power Control (PC) mechanism is responsible for eliminating the near-far effect especially in the uplink direction (users to Node B) which is the main focus of this paper. PC mechanism aims to equalise the received signal power from all users. This is not an easy task because the signal transmitted through a radio channels subjects to many attenuations such as path-loss due to distance, shadowing due to shielding phenomenon and multipath fading
ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL ALGORITHMS
• Kim’s Adaptive Power Control • Blind Adaptive Closed-Loop Power Control • Speed Adapted Closed-Loop Power Control • Mobility Based Adaptive Closed-Loop PC •
• In this paper, four adaptive power control algorithms namely AS-CLPC, BA-CLPC, M-ACLPC,and SA-CLPC as well as the conventional UMTS power control algorithm have been reviewed. The performance of all of them have been evaluated and compared under the same simulation environment and assumptions. The simulation results show that ASCLPC can achieve the best performance in terms of PCE at a low speed (slower than 25 km/h). At a speed beyond 25 km/h, SA-CLPC is the best. At a low speed, AS-CLPC which does not need information of the optimum stepsize and user speed can perform better than SA-CLPC which needs to know both of the information. This means it is possible to modify SA-CLPC with the use of AS-CLPC at lowspeed. The new algorithm will act as AS-CLPC when the speed is low and it will act as SA-CLPC when users moving faster (assumed the same information as SACLPC is available).
APPLICATIONS TO ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL
• Terrestrial point-to-point microwave communication link in tropical region faces excess path attenuation due to rainfall. The rain attenuation causes the receiving signal falls below threshold level required for specific bit error-rate (BER) performance. Adaptive power control is design to solve this problem. It increases the transmitting power level according to the signal level arrives in receiver. To improve the SNR, the receiving signal should be increased or the noise power level should be reduced
ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL FOR MICROWAVE COMMUNICATIONS
• Adaptive power control is an electronic system that controls the transmitting power level by referring to the receiving signal. It increases the transmitting power automatically when it rains and the signal goes below threshold. During the fine weather, the transmitting power is maintain at low level. This system can be programmed for different control scheme and therefore can be installed into microwave system with different specifications. The adaptive power control system is integrated into the
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL
• NASA requires that the CEV supports two communication links: space-toground and crosslink simultaneously. The crosslink will generate excess interference to the space-to-ground link as the distances between the two vehicles decreases, if the output power is fixed and optimized for the worst-case link analysis at the maximum distance range. As a result, power control is required to maintain the optimal power level for the crosslink without interfering with the space-to-ground link
ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL FOR SPACE COMMUNICATIONS
• For terrestrial applications, DSSS systems are advantageous because they provide increased capacity and security. However, DSSS systems are interference-limited. As a result, power control techniques are used to minimize the interference. In current space communication systems, power control techniques are not implemented and are sensitive to interference from other users. The possibility of failure to acquire or false carrier lock increases as the interference increases. Without power control, space communication systems are not able to optimize the power level while minimizing interference, especially for cross link communications. Figure 1 illustrates a typical communication scenario for future lunar
• In wireless local-area networks (WLANs), most wireless devices such as laptops and palmtops are Battery-powered, and extending the operating time of such devices is always desirable and important. A WLAN device normally operates in one of the following modes: transmit mode, receive mode, or leeping mode. Applying transmit power control (TPC) in WLAN systems, which allows a WLAN device to use one of the available power levels in transmit mode, is naturally an attractive idea to save battery energy and has been receiving considerable attention. IEEE
ADAPTIVE TRANSMIT POWER CONTROL IN IEEE 802.11a WIRELESS LANs
POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR 3G CELLULAR CDMA Adaptive power control algorithms has been widely studied for NETWORKS interference reduction, base station radiation decrease and terminal battery saving in
3G cellular systems. Indus paper, we study some of the existent adaptive power control algorithms and we propagation an evolution of these algorithms in the forward link. In the proposed algorithm, we try to maintain the inter cell interference stable and to reduce intra cell interference when it is possible. Therefore, the power control steps of mobiles requesting a power increase may be reduced to limit the total power increase if some constraints are verified. The proposed algorithm uses an adaptive step, which is updated using the instantaneous mobile power control command and the command history. Moreover, a stabilization zone above the SIR target is used to limit oscillations.
• Power control for mobile ad hoc networks has received increasing interest in recent years by the research community. Power control can be invoked to achieve different objectives, among which the most popular goals of either increasing the network throughput by mitigating the effects of interference on a node or ensuring minimal power consumption. In this paper, we propose a power control algorithm for ad hoc networks to improve network throughput. As such, we study and exploit the correlation that exists between the appropriate transmit power of successive RTS, CTS, DATA and ACK frames and propose an adaptive power control algorithm in the framework of the IEEE802.11 MAC protocol. As opposed to some alternative approaches our algorithm operates in a single channel and does not require additional hardware support, which makes it very appropriate for the existing IEEE 802.11 based networks
ADAPTIVE POWER CONTROL FOR SINGLE CHANNEL Ad Hoc NETWORKS