Fundamentals of Human Resource Management

Eighth Edition

DeCenzo and Robbins

Chapter 5
Human Resource Planning and Job Analysis

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Introduction
• Human resource planning is a process by which an organization ensures that
– it has the right number and kinds of people – at the right place – at the right time – capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall strategic objectives.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Introduction
• Linked to the organization’s overall strategy and planning to compete domestically and globally. • Overall plans and objectives must be translated into the number and types of workers needed. • Senior HRM staff need to lead top management in planning for HRM issues.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

An Organizational Framework
• A mission statement defines what business the organization is in, including why it exists and who its customers are. • Strategic goals
– Set by senior management to establish targets for the organization to achieve. – Generally defined for the next 5-20 years.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

An Organizational Framework
• Corporate assessment
– Gap or SWOT (Strengths-WeaknessesOpportunities-Threats) analysis determines what is needed to meet objectives. – Strengths and weaknesses and core competencies are identified. – HRM determines what knowledge, skills and abilities are needed by the organization’s human resources.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

An Organizational Framework

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
• Ensures that people are available to meet the requirements set during strategic planning. • Assessing current human resources
– A human resources inventory report summarizes information on current workers and their skills.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
– Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) are increasingly popular computerized databases that contain important information abut employees.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
• Assessing current human resources
– Succession planning
• includes the development of replacement charts • portray middle-to-upper level management positions that may become vacant in the near future • lists information about individuals who might qualify to fill the positions

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
• Determining the Demand for Labor
– A human resource inventory can be developed to project year-by-year estimates of future HRM needs for every significant job level and type. – Forecasts must be made of the need for specific knowledges, skills and abilities.

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Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
• Predicting the Future Labor Supply
– A unit’s supply of human resources comes from:
• • • • new hires contingent workers transfers-in individuals returning from leaves

– Predicting these can range from simple to complex. – Transfers are more difficult to predict since they depend on actions in other units.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
• Predicting the Future Labor Supply
– Decreases in internal supply come about through:
• • • • • • • • Retirements Dismissals Transfers-out Lay-offs Voluntary quits Sabbaticals Prolonged illnesses Deaths

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
– Retirements are the easiest to forecast. – Other factors are much more difficult to project. – Dismissals, transfers, lay-offs, and sabbaticals are more easily controlled by management.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
• Where Will We Find Workers
– migration into a community – recent graduates – individuals returning from military service – increases in the number of unemployed and employed individuals seeking other opportunities, either part-time or full-time

• The potential labor supply can be expanded by formal or on-the-job training.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
• Matching Labor Demand and Supply
– Employment planning compares forecasts for demand and supply of workers. – Special attention should be paid to current and future shortages and overstaffing. – Decruitment or downsizing may be used to reduce supply and balance demand. – Rightsizing involves linking staffing levels to organizational goals.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
Employment Planning and the Strategic Planning Process

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Job Analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. • It defines and documents the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job and the conditions under which a job is performed.

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Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Job Analysis Methods
– Observation method – job analyst watches employees directly or reviews film of workers on the job. – Individual interview method – a team of job incumbents is selected and extensively interviewed. – Group interview method – a number of job incumbents are interviewed simultaneously.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Job Analysis Methods
– Structured questionnaire method – workers complete a specifically designed questionnaire. – Technical conference method – uses supervisors with an extensive knowledge of the job. – Diary method – job incumbents record their daily activities.

• The best results are usually achieved with some combination of methods.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Structured Job Analysis Techniques
– Department of Labor’s Job Analysis Process:
• Information from observations and interviews is used to classify jobs by their involvement with data, people and things. • Information on thousands of titles available on O*Net OnLine which is the Department of Labor’s replacement for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)(developed at Purdue University)
– Jobs are rated on 194 elements, grouped in six major divisions and 28 sections. – The elements represent requirements that are applicable to all types of jobs. – This type of quantitative questionnaire allows many different jobs to be compared with each other, however, it appears to be more applicable to higherlevel professional jobs.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Job Descriptions
– Written statement of what jobholder does, how it is done, under what conditions and why. – Common format: title; duties; distinguishing characteristics; environmental conditions; authority and responsibilities. – Used to describe the job to applicants, to guide new employees, and to evaluate employees. – Identification of essential job functions is needed to assure compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Job Specifications
– States minimum acceptable qualifications. – Used to select employees who have the essential qualifications.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Job Evaluations
– Specify relative value of each job in the organization. – Used to design equitable compensation program.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• The Multi-faceted Nature of Job Analysis
– Almost all HRM activities are tied to job analysis. – Job analysis is the starting point for sound HRM.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Job Analysis
• Job Analysis and the Changing World of Work
– Globalization, quality initiatives, telecommuting, and teams require adjustments to the components of a job. – Today’s jobs often require not only technical skills but interpersonal skills and communication skills as well.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

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