Fundamentals of Human Resource Management

Eighth Edition

DeCenzo and Robbins

Chapter 9
Managing Careers

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Introduction
• Traditionally, career development referred to programs offered by organizations to help employees advance within the organization. • Today, each individual must take responsibility for his or her career.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Introduction
• Organizations now focus on matching the career needs of employees with the requirements of the organization. • While many organizations still invest in their employees, they don’t offer career security and they can’t meet the needs of everyone in a diverse workforce.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

What is a Career?
• Definition
– Pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person’s life. – Reflects any work, paid or unpaid. – Broad definition helpful in today’s work environment where employees and organizations have diverse needs.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

What is a Career?
Individual versus Organizational Perspective
– Organizational career planning – Developing career ladders, tracking careers, providing opportunities for development. – Individual career development – Helping employees identify their goals and steps to achieve them.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

What is a Career?
• Career Development versus Employee Development
– Career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness and success of organizational personnel. – Employee training and development focuses on performance in the immediate or intermediate time frames.

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Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

What is a Career?
Value for the Organization
1. Ensures needed talent will be available. 2. Improves the organization's ability to attract and retain talented employees. 3. Ensures that minorities and women get opportunities for growth and development. 4. Reduces employee frustration. 5. Enhances cultural diversity. 6. Promotes organizational goodwill.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

What is a Career?
Value for the Individual • Individuals’ external career success is measured by criteria such as:
– progression up the hierarchy, type of occupation, long-term commitment, and income.

• Internal career success is measured by the meaningfulness of one’s work and achievement of personal life goals.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

What is a Career?
Mentoring and Coaching • Effective coaches give guidance through direction, advice, criticism, and suggestion in an attempt to aid the employee’s growth. • Mentors are typically senior-level employees who:
– – – – support younger employees by vouching for them answering for them in the “highest circles” introducing them to others advising and guiding them through the corporate system

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

What is a Career?
Mentoring and Coaching • Disadvantages include:
– tendencies to perpetuate current styles and practices – reliance on the coach’s ability to be a good teacher

• Considerations for organizations:
– coaching between employees who do not have a reporting relationship – ways to effectively implement cross-gender mentoring

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Traditional Career Stages

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Traditional Career Stages
Exploration • Includes school and early work experiences, such as internships. • Involves:
– trying out different fields – discovering likes and dislikes – forming attitudes toward work and social relationship patterns
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Traditional Career Stages
Establishment • Includes:
– search for work – getting first job – getting evidence of “success” or “failure”

• Takes time and energy to find a “niche” and to “make your mark”.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Traditional Career Stages
Mid-Career • Challenged to remain productive at work. • Employee may:
– continue to grow – plateau (stay competent but not ambitious) – deteriorate

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Traditional Career Stages
Late career
– Successful “elder states persons” can enjoy being respected for their judgment. Good resource for teaching others. – Those who have declined may experience job insecurity. – Plateauing is expected; life off the job increases in importance.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Traditional Career Stages
Decline (Late Stage) • May be most difficult for those who were most successful at earlier stages. • Today’s longer life spans and legal protections for older workers open the possibility for continued work contributions, either paid or volunteer.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Career Choices and Preferences
• Good career choice outcomes provide positive self-concept and opportunity to do work we think is important.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Career Choices and Preferences
Holland Vocational Preferences • Three major components
– People have varying occupational preferences – If you think your work is important, you will be a more productive employee – You will have more in common with people who have similar interest patterns

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Career Choices and Preferences
Holland Vocational Preferences • Model identifies six vocational themes
– Realistic – Investigative – Artistic – Social – Enterprising – Conventional
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Career Choices and Preferences
• Holland Vocational Preferences
– Preferences can be matched to work environments; for example, socialenterprising-conventional preference structure matches career ladder in large bureaucracy.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Career Choices and Preferences
The Schein Anchors • Personal value clusters determine what is important to individuals.
– technical-functional competence – managerial competence – security-stability – creativity – autonomy-independence

• Success of person-job match determines individual’s fit with the job.
Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Career Choices and Preferences
Jung and the Myers-Briggs Typologies • Four personality dimensions:
– Extraversion-Introversion – Sensing-Intuitive – Thinking-Feeling – Judging-Perceiving

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Career Choices and Preferences
Jung and the Myers-Briggs Typologies • Assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and identify 16 different personality types. • Job characteristics can be matched to individual preferences.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

Enhancing Your Career
The individual holds primary responsibility for his/her career. Suggestions on how to do that are:

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

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