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Peter Ilyich


Franz Liszt

How do you express your feelings? What do you feel when these emotions are not expressed? .

Romantic Inspiration and Creativity CLASSICAL MUSIC • Adherence to reason and tradition • Sought to achieve unity. order and balance • Drew inspiration from the monuments of Greece and Rome • Classical artists exalted those of the masses ROMANTIC MUSIC • Revolt against Classical Period • Leaned toward selfexpression • Drew inspiration to human imagination and the wonders of NATURE • Romantic artists exalted instinctive feelings (individual and personal ones). .

. and sing myself.I celebrate myself .


“I perform most faithfully the duties the HUMANITY. 6) the first important Romantic “Nature Piece” .” -BEETHOVEN (1821) “Pastoral” Symphony (SYMPHONY NO. GOD and NATURE enjoin upon me.

FRENZY and HEAVENLY EXALTATION were others expressed in music and poetry.DESPAIR. The range of expression was broadened in Romantic music can be seen in the “expression marks” that came into being at this time: • Con forza e passione (with force and passion) • Espressivo (expressively) • Misterioso (mysteriously) • Dolente (Sadly) • Maestoso (majestically) • Presto furioso (fast and furious) .

• The music is generally very programmatic.. • It can be characterized by the individuality of style. where the instrumental music depicts a story.D..g. (e. Emphasizes self-expression and individuality in compositional style. where composers created music using folk song. Smetena’s “The Moldau” depicts scenes along the Moldau River) • Nationalism becomes important during this era. history and .D.Music of the Romantic Period • The Romantic era spans from 1820 A. up until 1900 A. idea or a poem.

• The Orchestra expanded due to the growing size of concert halls and opera houses • Addition of contrabassoon. bass clarinet. . piccolo and the cor anglias in the woodwind section.

• New sounds were created/used in all instruments. . • Flutes were required to play in breathy . • All instruments were required to play with more virtuosity. low registers.• Huge technological improvements in musical instruments sprung which made them more flexible and accurate. • Violins were asked to strike the strings with the wood of the bow – col legno.

sudden shifts to remote chords for expressive purposes. long. . prolonged dissonance conveys feelings of anxiety and longing.Melody Melody is more flexible and irregular in shape than in the Classical period. singable lines with powerful climaxes and chromatic inflections for expressiveness. Harmony Greater use of chromaticism makes the harmony richer and more colorful.

. piano becomes larger and more powerful. contrabassoon. occasionally obscuring the meter. Color The orchestra becomes enormous. dynamics vary widely to create extreme levels of expression. tuba. experiments with new playing techniques for special effects. piccolo and English horn were added to the ensemble. tempo can fluctuate greatly (tempo rubato) and sometimes slows to a crawl to allow for “the grand gesture”. reaching upward of one hundred performers. trombone.Rhythm Rhythms are free and relaxed.

such as sonatas and symphonies. but are more greatly exploited. sustaining pedal on the piano also adds to density. A few new forms are invented. . Some genres are carried over from classicism. Form Composers wrote musical miniatures as well as monumental pieces.Texture Predominantly homophonic but dense and rich because of larger orchestras and orchestral scores.

translating t heir mood and atmosphere into music. Poetry and music are thus intimately fused. • The Art Songs based on German texts tended to favour the poets Heine and Goethe. . • The song composers interpret the poems. Schumann and Brahms. • The best Art Song composers of the Romantic era include Schubert.Art Song • It is standardly a composition for solo voice and piano.

Types of Art Songs Strophic Str The same music is used for each stanza.e. Allowing music to reflect changing moods in the poem. grouped into a set. i. : Schubert’s “The Winter Journey” . Song Cycles contains several art songs. Like a hymn in structure. Often unified by a s ingle story line. Through-composed New music for each stanza.

genteel. • He was baptized on December 17. • His father. and Johann. Caspar. 1770 in the city of Bonn in the Electorate of Cologne. was a slender. • Beethoven's mother. Maria Magdalena van Beethoven. born in 1776. 1770. born in 1774.Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827) • Beethoven was born on or about December 16. a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. and deeply moralistic woman. • He has two younger brothers. was a mediocre court singer better known for his alcoholism than any musical ability. . Johann van Beethoven.

He was 19 years by then. Tirocinium. • In 1787. • In 1781. the newly appointed Court Organist. . • He composed a cantata when the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II died in 1790. the court sent Beethoven toVienna . • He had his first recital on March 26. he withdrew from school to study music full time with Christian Gottlob Neefe. • “Music comes to me more readily than words”. Billed as a “little son of six years.” • Attended a Latin grade school. where he hoped to study with Mozart. 1778.• Beethoven's father began teaching him music with an extraordinary rigor and brutality that affected him for the rest of his life. (Beethoven).

• On April 2. • Beethoven debuted his Symphony No. a wildly popular ballet that received 27 performances at the Imperial Court Theater. • He studied piano with Haydn. • His “Six String Quartets.• In 1792. he debuted his Symphony No. • Beethoven made his long-awaited public debut in Vienna on March 29. .” published in 1801. Beethoven decided to leave his hometown for Vienna once again. 1795. 1in C major at the Royal Imperial Theater in Vienna. 1800. vocal composition with Antonio Salieri and counterpoint Johan Albrechtsberger. 3 in Napoleon’s honor. • Also composed THE CREATURES OF PROMETHUES in 1801.

If I had any other profession. For almost two years I have ceased to attend any social functions.I must confess that I lead a miserable life. just because I find it impossible to say to people: I am deaf. I might be .

what is known as his “middle” or “heroic” period. he composed: • Five sets of piano • An opera variations • Four overtures • Six symphonies • Four trios • Four solo concertos • Two sextets • Five string quartets • And 72 songs • Six string sonatas • Seven piano sonatas . From 1803-1812. Beethoven continued to compose at a furious pace.Despite his rapidly progressing deafness.

structural. The works of his early period brought the Classical form to its highest expressive level. and were influenced by what was going on around him. and harmonic terms the musical idiom developed by predecessors such as Mozart and Haydn. directly inspiring other Romantic composers such as Frédéric .Beethoven as the BRIDGING GAP between Classical and Romantic Music Beethoven is one of the greatest composers of all time. expanding in formal. brought about the romantic era in classical. appropriately being categorized in and contributing to the musical language and thinking of the Romantic era. Beethoven's stylistic innovations bridge the Classical and Romantic periods. His compositions broke barriers. The works of his middle and late periods were even more forwardlooking.

3 Phases of Beethoven’s career 1st Phase (1770-1802): • His music was strongly influenced by Mozart and Haydn. • Works include KREUTZER SONATA for violin and Piano. 4th and 5th piano concertos. • He wrote his first two Piano concertos. c 2nd Phase (1802-1815): • In this period he was going deaf. 3rd. • HE greatly expanded upon existing forms and infused his music with HEROIC EXPRESSION. “Les Adieux”. Some of his greatest piano sonatas. 18 and first 10 piano sonatas. his only violin concerto. first two symphonies. string quartets Op. “Waldstein” and “Appasionata” .

• His works include the 9th symphony.c 3rd Phase (1815-1827) • He was now totally deaf • He departs substantially from established conventions. and the late piano sonatas and string quartets . the Missa Solemnis. both in form and in style.

sonatas and string quartets • One movement leads directly into another without a pause (attaca). • His works convey TENSION and EXCITEMENT through syncopations and dissonances • There is an enormous range of expression in his works: tempo. used classical forms and techniques but gave them new POWER and INTENSITY.Works of Beethoven • Beethoven. • He had markings such as “<p” • He unified the movements of his symphonies. . dynamic and expressive indications are marked far more extensively in his scores than his predecessors.

9 is the FIRST up to that time in music history to use a choir. • His Symphony No. 16 string quartets. 5 piano concertos. • His MOST FAMOUS WORKS are his 9 SYMPHONIES. he adds piccolos. whereas the even-numbered symphonies are very calm and lyrical. • He uses the SCHERZO rather than the MINUET for the 3rd movement of his pieces. trombones and contrabassoon. • The odd-numbered symphonies are more forceful. 1 violin concerto and 2 masses. which we hear in the “Ode to Joy” finale movement. but the development sections used the coda and greatly expanded.• Many of his movements use sonata form. 1 opera (“Fidelio”). • In some of his symphonies. . 1 ballet. • He wrote 32 piano sonatas.

it was intended to reflect on the life of Napoleon. . However. 3 “Eroica Symphony”. This symphony was the longest symphony ever composed at the time of its premiere. Beethoven scratched out its dedication to Napoleon when he found out that the general had invaded Austria.Beethoven’s Symphony no.

The third movement theme reappears in the finale. The last two movements are connected by a bridge.Symphony no. 5 is known as a CELL . 5 Beethoven unifies all contrasting movements. This contrasting element that he retained by employing the motif in all four movements of Symphony no. The first four-note motif is used extensively in first movement and third movements.

The End  .