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Implementing

HRD Programs
MBA Professional
Chapter6
Semester-4
By Syed Inaam Ullah shah

The Implementation
Stage

Points to Ponder
The best way to learn any new skill
is to learn it on the job.
Lectures are not a good method for
training.
Its easy to come up with stimulating
discussion questions.
Case studies are used for time
fillers.
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Training Delivery
Methods

Three basic categories:


On-the-Job Training
Classroom Training
Self-Paced Training

Note: Computer-based training can be in a classroom,


or individual/self-paced.

On-the-Job Training
(OJT)

Job instruction training (JIT)


Job rotation
Coaching
Mentoring

Characteristics of OJT
Training at ones regular
workstation
Most common form of training
Strengths:
Realism
Applicability

Weaknesses:
No formal structure
Can perpetuate mistakes
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More on OJT
Facilitates training transfer to the
job
Reduced training costs, since
classroom is not needed
Noise and production needs may
reduce training effectiveness
Quality and safety may be impacted
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Job Instruction Training


(JIT)

Prepare the worker


Present the task
Practice the task
Follow-up

JIT Process

Observe work processes


Brainstorm improvements
Analyze options
Implement improvements
Evaluate results and make
adjustments

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Job Rotation
Train on different tasks/positions
Often used to train entry-level
managers
Also used to provide back-up in
production positions

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Coaching and Mentoring


Coaching between worker and
supervisor
Can provide specific performance
improvement and correction

Mentoring senior employee paired


with a junior employee (protg)
Helps to learn the ropes
Prepares protg for future
advancement
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Classroom Training
Approaches

Five basic types:


Lecture
Discussion

Audiovisual Media
Experimental Methods
Classroom-based Computer-Based
Training
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Lecture
Oral presentation of material
Some visual aids can be added

Remains a very popular training


method
Transfers lots of information quickly

Interesting lectures can work well


Good to supplement with other
materials
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Problems with Lecture


Method

One-way form of communication

Trainees must be motivated to listen


Often lacks idea sharing
People dont always like listening to
lectures

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Discussion Method
Two-way communication
Use questions to control lesson
Types of Questions:
Direct: produce narrow responses
Reflective: mirror what was said
Open-Ended: challenge learners to
increase understanding

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Challenges of Using the


Discussion Method

Maintaining control in larger classes


Needs a skilled facilitator
Needs more time than lecture
Trainees must prepare for the lesson
by reading assignments, etc.

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Audiovisual Media
Brings visual senses (seeing) into
play, along with audio senses
(hearing)
Types:
Static Media
Dynamic Media
Telecommunications

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Static Media
Printed materials
Lecture notes
Work aids
Handouts

Slides e.g., PowerPoint


Overhead transparencies

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Dynamic Media
Audio cassettes
CDs
Film
Videotape
DVD
Video disc

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Telecommunications
Instructional TV
Teleconferencing
Videoconferencing

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Experiential Training
Case studies
Business game simulations
Role playing
Behavior modeling
Outdoor training

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Self-Paced Training
Hard-copy
Correspondence courses
Programmed instruction

Computer-Based Training (CBT)


Computer-aided instruction
Internet/intranet training

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Computer-Based
Training (CBT)

Interactive with user


Training when and where user wants it
Trainee has greater control over progress
CBT can provide progress reports and be
tailored to specific instructional objectives
Trainee works on own with minimal
facilitation by instructor who is elsewhere

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Types of CBT
Computer-Aided Instruction
Internet & Intranet-Based Training
(e-learning)
Intelligent Computer-Assisted
Instruction

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Computer-Based
Training (ClassroomGroup-based
Based)

Instructor is present and facilitates


computer-based learning
Trainees are collocated and can help
each other
Requires computer, etc., for each
trainee

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Computer-Aided
Instruction (CAI)

Drill-and-practice approach
Read-only presentation of a classic
training program
Multimedia courses
Interactive multimedia training
Simulations

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E-learning
Intranet
Internal to site/organization

Internet
General communications
Online reference
Needs assessment, administration,
testing
Distribution of CBT
Delivery of multimedia
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Intelligent CAI
Uses computers capabilities to
provide tailored instruction
Can use expert systems, fuzzy logic,
and other rubrics
Can provide real-time simulation and
stimulation

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Implementing Training
Depends on:
Objectives
Resources
Trainee characteristics

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Other Considerations
Concerning
Physical
environment:
Implementation
Seating

Comfort level
Physical distractions

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Proper
Prior
Planning
Precludes
Particularly
Poor
Performance
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Planning
Does NOT prevent failure
But makes it easier to avoid
failure.
Planning your HRD implementation
before you actually do it greatly
increases the likelihood of successful
implementation.
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Training Provides Many


Things

Networking
Knowledge
Social acceptance
Improved interpersonal skills
Team building

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