What is Harmonics?
Harmonics are defined as the sinusoidal components of a non-linear periodic waveform with a frequency that is a whole multiple of the fundamental frequency.  the term total harmonic distortion (THD). expresses the distortion as a percentage of the fundamental (pure sine) of voltage and current waveforms.




Sources of Harmonics

   

Transformers under no loads and light loads. Rotating machines. Rectifiers. Industrial drives. Electrolysis plants

How Harmonics Are Produced?
Non-linear loads create harmonics by drawing current in abrupt short pulses, rather than in a smooth sinusoidal manner  They occur frequently

When there are large numbers of personal computers (single phase loads), uninterruptible  power supplies (UPSs), variable frequency drives (AC and DC) or any electronic  device using solid state power switching supplies to convert incoming AC to DC.

How do harmonics affect us?
Greater risk of interference with communication network.  High currents in neutrals due to Triplents  Overheating due to overloading of capacitors, motors, transformers, cables

How Variable Frequency Drives Cause Harmonics

Harmonics Analysis:

Power factor correction capacitors are protected from short circuits as a result of occurrence of parallel resonance by using de-tuned filters. Tuned filters are used to suppress individual harmonic orders.

Capacitor Voltage and Current Relationships

Effects and Negative Consequences

    

Harmonics can lead to power system inefficiency. Some of the negative ways Conductor Overheating: Capacitors: Fuses and Circuit Breakers: Transformers: Utility Meters:

Reducing Harmonics
 12-pulse

converter front end:

Typical Twelve-Pulse Front End Converter for AC Drive

 Delta-Delta

and Delta- Wye Transformers:  Isolation Transformers  Line Reactors:

 identifying

the size and location of nonlinear loads should be an important part of any maintenance, troubleshooting and repair program.  Observe various methods as possible as to reduce harmonics  This article was intended to provide an introduction to the basic principles of power system harmonics.


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