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Ad-hoc Networks

Dr Mrs U D Dalal

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Infrastructure based Networks and Infrastructure-less
Mobile Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocols
Setting up a simple Mobile Ad-hoc Network
Pros and Cons.

Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks

Classification, types, network structure, basic requirements.

Difference between Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks

Future Research Directions


Ad Hoc Networks
The Need of TIME.

Today the networks normally developed are of

the type having some fixed infrastructure. What
would be the solution if the network is required to be
made for some short period of time?

An Ad-hoc network is a local area network or some

other small network, especially one with wireless (or
temporary plug in connections), in which some of the
network devices are the part of the network only for
the duration of a communications session.
Allows new network devices to be quickly added.
Each user has a unique network address that is
recognized as the part of the network.


Nodes or devices can join together to make up a

simple ad-hoc network. Every device owes an equal
status or designation in the network.

A Simple Ad Hoc Network Example

One organization, for example arranges a conference,

and the attendees use their laptops or notebook
computers to connect to the nearby computers and
the Internet through the wireless router.

A Comparison Example

A better solution to this kind of network will be an adhoc network in which the wireless router is replaced
by a wireless computer that can well act as a wireless
The computers communicate directly with each other.

A Comparison Example

On the basis of infrastructure we can classify the Adhoc networks into two main categories. They are
1. Infrastructure-based networks.
A network with pre-constructed infrastructure that is
made of fixed network nodes and gateways, with
typically network services delivered via these
preconfigured infrastructures.
For example, cellular networks are infrastructure-based
networks built from PSTN backbone switches, MSCs,
base stations, and mobile hosts.
Each node has its strict specific responsibility in the
network. WLANs typically also fall into this category.

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

2. Infrastructure-less networks
In this case a network is formed dynamically through
the cooperation of an arbitrary set of independent
For example, two PCs equipped with wireless adapter
cards can set up an independent network whenever
they are within range of one another.
In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes are expected to
behave as routers and take part in discovery and
maintenance of routes to other nodes.
Network is decentralized where the topology
discovering and the message delivering must be
executed by the nodes themselves.

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Ad-hoc Networks require efficient routing protocols

because determining successful routing paths and
delivering messages in a decentralized environment
where network topology fluctuates is not a well
defined problem.
An optimal route at a certain time may not work
seconds later.
Discussed below are three categories that existing adhoc network routing protocols fall into:
Table Driven Protocols
On Demand Protocols
Hybrid Protocols

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing


Ad-hoc Mobile Routing Protocols

Table Driven Protocols

On Demand Protocols



Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing


Table Driven Routing Protocol

Send periodic updates of the routes.
Each node uses routing information to store the location
information of other nodes in the network and this
information is then used to move data among different
nodes in the network.
Have lower latency since routes are maintained at all

On Demand Routing Protocols

Establish routes only when required to route data
Route discovery process
Have longer transmission delays.

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing


Hybrid Routing Protocols

Combine Table Based Routing Protocols with On
Demand Routing Protocols.
They use distance-vectors to establish the optimum
routes, and report routing information only when there
is a change in the topology of the network.
Each node in the network has its own routing zone, the
size of which is defined by a zone radius, defined by a
metric such as the number of nodes.
Each node keeps a record of routing information for its
own zone.

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing


Data Routing

Data Routing

Route Discovery in Mobile Ad-hoc


Route Discovery in Mobile Ad-hoc


An Interesting Scenario





No expensive infrastructure must be installed

Use of unlicensed frequency spectrum
Quick distribution of information around sender
Use of ad-hoc networks can increase mobility and
flexibility, as ad-hoc networks can be brought up and
torn down in a very short time.
Ad-hoc networks can be more economical in some
cases, as they eliminate fixed infrastructure costs and
reduce power consumption at mobile nodes.
Because of multi-hop support in ad-hoc networks,
communication beyond the Line of Sight (LOS) is
possible at high frequencies.

Key Benefits of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Multi-hop ad-hoc networks can reduce the power

consumption of wireless devices. More transmission
power is required for sending a signal over any distance
in one long hop than in multiple shorter hops. It can
easily be proved that the gain in transmission power
consumption is proportional to the number of hops
Because of short communication links (multi-hop nodeto-node communication instead of long-distance node to
central base station communication), radio emission
levels can be kept low. This reduces interference levels,
increases spectrum reuse efficiency, and makes it
possible to use unlicensed unregulated frequency bands.

Key Benefits of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

They are Infrastructure-less

Dynamically Changing Network Topologies
Network Security
Physical Layer Limitation
Limited Link Bandwidth and Quality
Variation in Link and Node Capabilities
Quality of Service
Network Scalability
Network Management and Reliability
Energy Constrained Operation

Mobile Ad-hoc Design Issues and


A wireless ad hoc sensor network consists of a

number of sensors spread across a geographical area.
Each sensor has wireless communication capability
and some level of intelligence for signal processing
and networking of the data.

Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks

Military sensor networks to detect and gain as much

information as possible about enemy movements, and
other phenomena of interest. In a military sensor
network, track an enemy tank as it moves through the
geographic area covered by the network.
Also the military sensor networks designed to maintain
a low probability of intercept and/or a low probability of
detection. Hence the nodes prefer to radiate as little
power as necessary and transmit as infrequently as
possible, thus decreasing the probability of detection
and interception.
Sensor networks to detect and characterize Chemical,
Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive material.

Examples of Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor


Individually addressable nodes.

Group or mixed addressable nodes.

Classification of Wireless Sensor


Network self-organization: For large number of nodes

and their potential placement in hostile locations, it is
essential that the network be able to self-organized,
manual configuration is not feasible. Moreover, nodes
may fail (either from lack of energy or from physical
destruction), and new nodes may join the network.
Therefore, the network must be able to periodically
reconfigure itself so that it can continue to function.
Individual nodes may become disconnected from the
rest of the network, but a high degree of connectivity
must be maintained.
Large number of (mostly stationary) sensors: Required
for the collection of information from different regions

Basic Requirements of Ad-hoc Sensor


Collaborative signal processing: Yet another factor that

distinguishes these networks from MANETs is that the
end goal is detection/estimation of some events of
interest, and not just communications.
Querying ability: A user may want to query an individual
node or a group of nodes for information collected in the
region. Various local nodes will collect the data from a
given area and create summary messages.
Low energy use: Since in many applications the sensor
nodes will be placed in a remote area, service of a node
may not be possible. In this case, the lifetime of a node
may be determined by the battery life, thereby requiring
the minimization of energy expenditure.

Basic Requirements of Ad-hoc Sensor


Acoustic used as the sound sensors.

Seismic for the prediction of earth quake.
Infrared for short range communication.
Still/Motion video camera.

Ad-hoc Network Sensor Types

Cellular Networks

Ad-hoc Networks

Fixed, pre-located cell sites and base


No fixed base stations, very rapid


Static backbone network topology

Highly dynamic network topologies,

with multi-hop.

Relatively favorable environment and

stable connectivity.

Hostile environment (losses, noise)

and irregular connectivity.

Detailed planning before base stations Ad-hoc network automatically forms

can be installed.
and conforms to change.

Difference between Cellular and Ad-hoc


Routing Protocol Optimization

QoS Support
Standardization and Interoperability

Future Research Directions

Ad hoc networking will play an important role in this

evolution. Its intrinsic flexibility, ease of maintenance,
lack of needed infrastructure, auto configuration, selfadministration capabilities, and significant cost
advantages make it a prime candidate for becoming
the stalwart technology for personal pervasive
In moving forward and successfully fulfilling this
opportunity, developing and seamlessly integrating
MANET with other wireless networks and fixed
internet infrastructures, the successful addressing of
many of the open research and development issues
will play a critical role


Thanks for Your Concentration.


from your side is welcomed?