A Technical Seminar Presentation

WiMAX ( Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
Presented by P. Manoj Kumar.
DRK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

seminar Contents
Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Previous technology Abstract Introduction Goals of WiMAX Operating Principle of WiMAX How WiMAX Works Protocols For Connection Handoff WiMAX System Types WiMAX Standards Evolution WiMAX Over Other Technologies Technical Specifications of 802.16A Advantages of WiMAX WiMAX Applications Future of WiMAX Conclusion

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Previous technology--- Wi-Fi
What is an Wi-Fi ?  What is the technology used in Wi-Fi ?  What are the Limitations of Wi-Fi over WIMAX ?  What are the reasons for the development of WIMAX ?

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Abstract
The IEEE 802.16 standard (WiMAX) has been proposed to provide the last-mile connectivity to the fixed locations by radio links.  WiMAX can use base stations to provide high speed data connections for voice ,data & video services to distances over 30km.  WiMAX are designed to allow from point to point (PTP) ,point to multipoint(PMP) and mesh networks.  WiMAX equipments are used as various versions of smart antennas ,OFDM & sometimes mesh to provide alternatives to wired communication.

Introduction
WiMAX can provide broadband access to internet  efficiently.  WiMAX could replace cables and DSL services providing universal Internet access.  WiMAX is similar to Wi-Fi –turning your computer ON will automatically connect you to the closest available WiMAX antenna.  Original WiMAX system was designed to operate at 1066 GHz and it must tune to 2-11 GHz frequency for broadband wireless access(BWA).

WiMAX can provide multiple types of services to the same user with different QoS Levels.  It is possible to install a single WiMAX transceiver in an office building & provide internet browsing and telephone services on the same WiMAX connection  WiMAX was designed to mix the contention based and contention free to provide services have different quality of service levels.

Goals of WiMAX
The goal of WiMAX is to provide high-speed internet access in a coverage range several kilometers in radius .  WiMAX provides about 70Mbps with a range of 50 kilometers.  WiMAX standard has the advantage that it can support both LOS ( line of sight ) as well as NLOS( non line-of-sight )  WiMAX can provide 20Mbps speed in case of small obstacles like trees ,houses .It cannot cross hills & large buildings.

Operating principle of WiMAX
WiMAX uses point-multipoint link where it consists of base transceiver station ,a central antenna which communicates with subscribers antennas .  The IEEE 802.16 standard have two categories

ØFixed WiMAX : provides for fixed line communication with an antenna mounted on a rooftop , like a TV antenna . ØMobile WiMAX : allows mobile client machines to be connected to the internet . Mobile WiMAX opens the doors to mobile phone use over IP , and even high-speed mobile services.

HOW WIMAX WORKS ??

A WiMAX tower : similar to the concept of phone tower, which can provide the coverage to rural areas.

ü
ü A WiMAX receiver : the receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card . ü ü Non-line-of-sight : this is Wi-Fi sort of service where a small antenna on your computer connects to the tower ,which uses a lower frequency range –2GHz to 11GHz

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ü Line-of-sight : Here a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole, which is more stable and stronger connection .This uses a frequency range of possibly 66GHz
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Protocols for connection handoff

The previous architecture represents the hierarchical mobile IP for 802.16d network.  The objective of handoff is to maintain the IP connectivity between the subscribers station and the corresponding host  A major goal is to minimize the packet loss and delay .  The PFA(Primary Foreign Agent) serves as the “anchor point” for each SS i.e. data from and to a given SS always goes through the corresponding PFA.  The PFA also keeps track of the operational parameters for the 802.16d connections associated with the SS.  The communication path associated of multiple IP tunnels and packets are forwarded by tunneling

Wimax system types

Some of the different types of uses that WiMAX provides  Point to Point (PTP) : Here the connection may be independent from all other systems or networks.  Point to multipoint(PTMP) : It allows a radio system to provide services to multiple users.  WiMAX can also be setup as mesh networks allowing the WiMAX systems to forward packets between the base stations and subscribers without having to install communication lines between the base stations .
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Wimax standard evolution

802.16 broadband wireless systems have evolved with different standards over time.  To provide wireless broadband service in lower frequency range, the 802.16A specification was created that operates in the 2-11Ghz.  To provide both fixed and mobile service ,the 802.16E specification was developed.

Wimax standard differences

Wimax radio channel types

The previous figure shows that radio channels can be single or multiple carriers  The bandwidth of WiMAX radio channels can vary from 1.25Mhz to 28Mhz in steps of 1.75MHz  It also shows that a WiMAX system that is using multicarrier OFDMA and how some of the subcarriers have been assigned to a specific user

Wimax over other technologies
3G Max speed Coverage Airwaves Advantages 2Mbps Wi- Fi 802.11 54Mbps WiMAX 802.16 100Mbps 50 miles Either Speed ,range Interference issues ? MOBILE- Fi 802.20 16Mbps Several miles Licensed Speed ,mobility High price

Several miles 300 feet Licensed Range ,mobility Un-licensed Speed, price Short range

Disadvantages Slow, expensive


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Wi-Fi: 802.16 is highly complex standard which contains from day one, many of the features that are being retrofitted with various degrees of clumsiness and baggage into WiFi . cellular technologies: WiMAX is a serious threat to 3G because of the broadband capabilities ,distance capabilities and ability to support voice effectively with full QoS. Handset makers such as Nokia will be banking on this as they develop smart phones that support WiMAX as Well as 3G.

Technical specifications of 802.16a
802.16 operate at up to 124Mbps in the 28MHz channel,802.16a at 70Mbps in lower frequency. Fundamental technologies in 802.16a : OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)  OFDM is well established and is incorporated in some new generation carrier services as well as being fundamental to digital TV.  It transmits multiple signals simultaneously across one cable or wireless transmission path ,within separate frequencies ,with the orthogonal element spacing these frequencies to avoid interference. ü

Support for smart antenna :

ü smart antenna mechanisms are one of the most important methods of improving spectral efficiency in noncellular wireless networks . ü It is an approach for the reconstruction of network to support more users at fast rates, offering broadband performance and quality over a wireless link.  Dynamic frequency selection in unlicensed spectrum :  This is critical to support difficult user environments with hundreds of users per channel at high bandwidth and a mixture of continuous and burst traffic.
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Protocol independent core :
WiMAX can transport IPV4 ,IPV6 ,ETHERNET and others ,supporting multiple services simultaneously and with quality of service.


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Mesh: ü mesh is the optional topology for subscriber –to-subscriber communication in non-line of sight 802.1a ü To allow overlapping ,adhoc networks in the unlicensed spectrum and extend the edges of the WMAN’S range are low cost. ü It allows a community to be densely seeded with WiMAX connections at low cost with robust communications as there are multiple paths for traffic to take  security:  802.16 also includes measure for privacy and encryption  Authentication with X.509 certificates and data encryption.


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Quality of service : 802.16 is concerned with quality of service(QoS),which enables NLOS operation without severe distortion of the signal from buildings ,weather and vehicles. Voice and video require low latency but tolerate some error rate ,while most of the applications are error free ,but can cope with latency FDD & TDD : The standard also supports both frequency and time division multiplexing to enable interoperability with cellular and other wireless systems. FDD ,the legacy duplexing requires two channel pairs one for transmission and other for reception. TDD uses a single channel for both upstream and downstream transmissions, dynamically allocating bandwidth depending on the traffic requirements.

Advantages of wimax
ü Stall wired broadband and make wireless the key platform of the future . ü Extends the range of Wi-Fi so that the myth of ubiquitous wireless can become a reality. ü Provide an alternative or complement to 3G ü Provide an economically viable communications infrastructure for developing countries and mobile black spot regions in developed nations .

Wimax applications

Mobile WiMAX can be used to provide voice-over-IP services in the future through the low-latency design ,can provide innovative new services such as voice chatting, push-to-talk, multimedia chatting , audio streaming, gaming, IP-TV(internet protocol television).  WiMAX operates in a mixture of licensed and unlicensed spectrum , and the initial products will be focused on 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz licensed and 5.8GHz unlicensed bands.  The licensed spectrum gives operators the chance to apply for franchises for fixed wireless broadband provision ,especially in rural, remote areas with low cost.  The unlicensed spectrum have the chance to provide backhaul services for hotspots, which have the potential to create nationwide wireless network.

FUTURE of wimax
WiMAX movement continues to focus on mobile opportunities ,it is traditional fixed wireless market that will remain the technology’s bread and butter through 2009.  The Worldwide wireless broadband is expected to grow by 40 percent yearly through 2010 .  The mobile WiMAX community is faced with political ,technical and competitive challenges since the 802.16e specification is not yet finished .  FLASH OFDM ,TD CDMA and future revisions of 3gpp and 3gpp2 will also play a role in both the fixed and mobile markets  FLASH OFDM ,already have considerable technical and time to market advantages over mobile WiMAX

Conclusion
WiMAX is the most important of the host of the host wireless standards emerging from the IEEE and 3G bodies  WiMAX has created the interest and market acceptance of wireless networking .  Within five years ,we expect WiMAX to be the dominant technology for wireless networking .  As the cellular operators move to IP based 4G systems ,they will embrace WiMAX, which will be catalyst for shakeout of operators.  Wimax will be the most significant technology to date making wireless access ubiquitous ,creating a major shakeup of the traditional wireless and mobile communication sector

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