# Mesh Analysis

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Based on KVL
Make use of mesh currents as circuit
variables
A mesh is a loop that does not contain any
other loop within it.
Only applicable to a planar circuit
Planar circuit:
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A circuit that can be drawn in a plane with no
branches crossing one another; otherwise
non-planar.

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Mesh Analysis
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Planar circuit:

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Planar Circuit – circuits that can be drawn on a plane with
no crossing branches

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Mesh Analysis
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Non-planar circuit
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No way to redraw it and avoid the branches
crossing

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Mesh Analysis without Current
Sources
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Given a circuit with n meshes.
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1. Assign mesh currents i1, i2, .. in to the n
meshes. Assume mesh current flows
clockwise.
2. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use Ohm’s
Law to express the voltages in terms of
mesh currents.

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Mesh Analysis without Current
Sources
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Example 1: Find v and i.

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Mesh Analysis without Current
Sources
1. Assign mesh currents i1, i2, .. in to the n
meshes. Assume mesh current flows
clockwise.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
i = i1 −i2 →eqn .1
8.
v =12 i
9.
v =12 (i1 −i2 ) →eqn .2
10.

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Mesh Analysis without Current
Sources
2. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use Ohm’s
Law to express the voltages in terms of
mesh currents.
At mesh
3. 1,
−12 +4.
2i1 +12 (i1 − i2 ) + 4i1 = 0
2i1 +125.i1 −12 i2 + 4i1 = 12
6.
18 i1 −12 i2 = 12 → eqn .3
7.
At mesh
2,
8.
12 (i2 −9.i1 ) + 9i2 + 8 + 3i2 = 0
12 i2 −12
10.i1 + 9i2 + 3i2 = −8
11.
−12 i +
24 i = −8 → eqn .4
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Mesh Analysis without Current
Sources
Solving for the mesh currents,
18 i1 −2.
12 i2 =12 →eqn .3
rearrangin
g eqn.3,
3.
18 i1 −4.
12 =12 i2
i2 =15.
.5i1 −1 →eqn .3'
substitute
eqn.3' in eqn.4,
6.
−12 i17.
+24 (1.5i1 −1) = −8
2
28.
i
=
−0 →eqn .1
i1 = A
3
39.
2

substitute

in2 =1.5(
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i2 = 0 A
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i1 in eqn.3' ,

2
) −1
3

i=

3

A

2
−0) →eqn .2
3
v =8 V
v =12 (

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Mesh Analysis without Current
Sources
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Example 2: Determine I0 .

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I0 = -5A
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Mesh Analysis w/out Current Sources
1. Assign mesh currents i1, i2, .. in to the n
meshes. Assume mesh current flows
clockwise.

In o = i3 → eqn .1
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Mesh Analysis w/out Current Sources
2. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use Ohm’s
Law to express the voltages in terms of
mesh currents.

Around
Mesh 1,
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−n20 + 4(i1 − i3 ) + 2(i1 − i2 ) = 0
4i1 − 4i3 + 2i1 − 2i2 = 20
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3i1 − i2 − 2i3 = 10 → eqn.2
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Around Mesh 2,
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2(i2 − i1 ) + 8(i2 − i3 ) −10 I 0 = 0
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but,
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I 0 = i3

Around Mesh 3,
4(i3 − i1 ) + 6i3 + 8(i3 − i2 ) = 0

2in2 − 2i1 + 8i2 − 8i3 −10i3 = 0

4i3 − 4i1 + 6i3 + 8i3 − 8i2 = 0

−i1 + 5i2 − 9i3 = 0 → eqn.3

− 2i1 − 4i2 + 9i3 = 0 → eqn .4

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Mesh Analysis w/out Current Sources
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Solving for the mesh currents

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Mesh
Equations:
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3i1 − i2 − 2i3 = 10 → eqn.2
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−ni1 + 5i2 − 9i3 = 0 → eqn.3
−n2i1 − 4i2 + 9i3 = 0 → eqn.4
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Using
Cramer's Rule,
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 3, − 1, − 2 i1  10
 − 1, 5, − 9  i  = 0 

 2   
 − 2, − 4, 9  i3  0 

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 45 
− 14 
i1  

i  = − 135 
 2   14 
i3  

5




I o = i3 → eqn.1
I o = −5 A
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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
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Two cases to consider:
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Case 1: A current source exists only in one
mesh.
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Set the mesh current = current source.

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Case 2: A current source exists between the
two meshes.
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Create super mesh by excluding the current
source and any elements connected in
series with it.

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#A super mesh results when two meshes have a
(dependent or independent) current source in common.

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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
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Properties of super mesh:
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Current source in the super mesh provides the
constraint.
Super mesh has no current of its own.
Super mesh requires the application of both
KVL and KCL.

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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
Find ia and ib.

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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
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Case 1: A current source exists only in one
mesh.
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Set the mesh current = current source.

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ia = i1 − i2 → eqn.1

i1 = 1 → eqn .3

ib = i2 − i3 → eqn.2

i3 = 4 → eqn .4
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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
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Around Mesh 2,
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2(i2 − i1 ) + 6i2 + 7(i2 − i3 ) = 0
but
i1 = 1 → eqn .3
i3 = 4 → eqn .4
2(i2 −1) + 6i2 + 7(i2 − 4) = 0
2i2 − 2 + 6i2 + 7i2 − 28 = 0
i2 = 2
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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
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Solving for ia and ib.

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Mesh Currents :
i1 = 1 A
i2 = 2 A
i3 = 4 A

Therefore,
ia = i1 − i2 → eqn.1
ia = 1 − 2
ia = −1 A
ib = i2 − i3 → eqn.2
ib = 2 − 4
ib = −2 A

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Mesh Analysis with Current
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Example 1: Determine ia, ib and ic.

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ia=3.474
ib =0.4737
ic =1.1052
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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources

Case 2: A
current source
exists between
the two
meshes. The 3
A current
source is
between
meshes 2 and
3.

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Create super
mesh by
excluding the
current source
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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
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Example 1: Determine ia, ib and ic.

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ia = i1 → eqn.1
ib = i3 → eqn.2
ic = i2 → eqn.3
i1 − i2 = 3 → eqn.4

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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources
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Case 2: Create super mesh by excluding the

current source and any elements connected
in series with it.
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Mesh Analysis with Current
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KVL around the supermesh

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− 6 + 2(i1 − i3 ) + 4(i2 − i3 ) + 8i2 = 0
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2ni1 − 2i3 + 4i2 − 4i3 + 8i2 = 6
2ni1 + 12i2 − 6i3 = 6 → eqn.5
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KVL around Mesh 3,

2(i3 − i1 ) + 2i3 + 4(i3 − i2 ) = 0
2i3 − 2i1 + 2i3 + 4i3 − 4i2 = 0
− 2i1 − 4i2 + 8i3 = 0 → eqn.6
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Mesh Analysis with Current
Sources

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i1 − i2 = 3 → eqn.4

2i1 + 4i2 + 2i3 = 6 → eqn.5
− 2i1 − 4i2 + 8i3 = 0 → eqn.6

 1, − 2, 0  i1  3
 i  = 6
n
2,
4,
2

 2   
− 2, − 4, 8  i3  0
ia = i1 → eqn.1
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ib = i3 → eqn.2
ic = i2 → eqn.3
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ia = 3.474 A
ib = 1.1052 A
ic = 0.4737 A
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Nodal Analysis by Inspection
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Implemented when
all sources in the
circuit are
independent
current sources.
Convert resistors to
conductors.

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Nodal Analysis by Inspection
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Example: By inspection, determine the nodevoltage equations for the circuit.

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Mesh Analysis by Inspection
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Implemented when all sources in the circuit
are independent voltage sources.

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Mesh Analysis by Inspection
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Example: By inspection, determine the
mesh-current equations for the circuit.

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