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Chapter 3

The movement of
substances across
the plasma membrane

Passive Active
Transport Transport

Simple Osmosis Facilitate

Diffusion Diffusion
Learning outcomes
At the end of this lesson, student will
be able to:
 State orally 2 over 3 types of
passive transport correctly.
 List down in written form at least 3
out of 5 the comparison of passive
transport and active transport in
correct and precise way.
Passive Transport
 The movement of particles (molecules
or ions) within gas or liquid from a
region of higher concentration to a
region of lower concentration.
 The process does not require
expenditure of energy from ATP.
 Examples are simple diffusion, osmosis
and facilitated diffusion.
Simple Diffusion
 Define as net movement of
molecules or ions from a region of
higher concentration to a region of
lower concentration, that is, to move
down a concentration gradient until
an equilibrium is reached.
 Physically can be observed in liquids
or gases.
Modelling diffusion

before diffusion after diffusion

 The diffusion state continues until the system has

reached a dyanamic equilibrium where the
concentration gradient no longer exist.
Osmosis: the diffusion of
 Itdefine as the diffusion of water
molecules from a region higher
water concentration to a region of
lower water concentration through
semi-permeable membrane.
 The semi-permeable membrane is
permeable to water BUT impermeable
to certain solutes such as sucrose
 Examples:
Absorption of water from soil solution by
plant root hairs
Reabsorption of water by kidney tubuled
The process of osmosis:
Semi-permeable membrane
prevents the movement of
larger solute molecules

Only water
Water molecules can pass Solute
molecule through the pores molecules
s in the semi-
Facilitate diffusion
 The movement of molecules or ions
down their concentration gradient
assisted by transport proteins, namely
the carrier proteins or pore
(channel) proteins.
 The process is passive and does not
require expenditure of energy by the
 Pores proteins form pores or
channels through which small
dissolved particles, esp. ions can
diffuse across plasma membrane.
 Pores have specific interior
characteristics that only allow
specific ions to pass through them.
Activity 1

True or False
1. Passive transport across the plasma membrane
ensures the cell get its supply of oxygen, glucose
and amino acids. (T/F)
2. Substances that are required by cells and those to
be eliminated from cells can move across the
plasma membrane. (T/F)
3. The plasma membrane is semi-permeable. (T/F)
4. The fluid mosaic model is made up of a lipid
bilayer with amino acids scattered in it. (T/F)
5. The lipid bilayer and protein molecules in the
plasma membrane are static. (T/F)
6. Passive transport is simple diffusion and
facilitated diffusion across a membrane.
7. Passive transport occurs down the
concentration gradient. (T/F)
8. Specific proteins facilitate diffusion across
the plasma membrane. (T/F)
9. Digested food diffuses from the ileum into
the capillaries in the villus by simple
diffusion. (T/F)
10. Passive transport is the pumping of mineral
salts into the root hairs down the
concentration gradient. (T/F)
Active Transport
 Define as the movement of molecules or
ions across the plasma membrane against
their concentration gradient.
 The process requires carrier proteins with
specific binding sites.
 Use energy in the form of ATP (generated
during respiration in mitochondria).
 Active transport results in the
accumulation of or elimination of
molecules and ions from the cells.
 In animal cells, the concentration of
potassium ions inside the cell is always
higher than the concentration outside
the cells. These carrier proteins, also
called sodium-potassium pumps.
 Help to maintain the concentration
gradients by pumping sodium ions out of
the cell and potassium ions into the cell.
Activity 2

between passive
and active