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10/01/2014

Datta Meghe College of Engineering, Airoli, Navi Mumbai


Department of Mechanical Engineering
A
Seminar on

ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION


OF SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE

Under the guidance of


Prof. (Dr.) Vilas B. Shinde
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Presented by
Aditya S. Kasar

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CONTENT

Introduction
Literature Review
Design
CFD Analysis
Conclusion
Future Scope

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CONTENT

Introduction

Literature Review
Design
CFD Analysis
Conclusion
Future Scope

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INTRODUCTION

What is

MOTIVATION BEHIND THE PROJECT?


What are the project

AIM &OBJECTIVES?

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INTRODUCTION

MOTIVATION BEHIND THE PROJECT


Depleting conventional natural resources at alarming
rate.
Need for developing use of non-conventional energy
resources.
Shortage of electricity faced in small towns and
villages.
Tap the potential Air Energy available and maximize
the power generation economically.
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WHY
?

INTRODUCTION
TYPES OF WIND TURBINE AVAILABLE

It is simple in geometry and construction is


cheap
Works at lower wind speeds compared to its
counterpart
Works irrespective wind flow direction.

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FOCUS OF
OUR STUDY

10/01/2014

INTRODUCTION

AIM & OBJECTIVES


Study the existing Savonius wind turbine designs.
Analyze the several factors determining the power
output.
Modify the design to increase the efficiency of existing
Savonius wind turbine.
Promote the use of Savonius wind turbines to
supplement the power supply in small towns and
villages
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CONTENT

Introduction

Literature Review
Design
CFD Analysis
Conclusion
Future Scope

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LITERATURE REVIEW
Sr. Author [Ref]
No
.

Findings

JL Menet et. al. 2012 [1]

The increase of wind speed, causes torque to


increase, however this necessarily need not
increase the power coefficient.

Gupta R. et. al. 2012 [2]

The maximum power coefficient of 51% was


found where there was no overlap

A. Biswas et. al. 2012


[3]

Optimum aspect ratio for Savonius rotor was


found to be 0.8

UK Saha et. al. 2008 [4]

Among a comparison between the semicircular


and the twisted ones, the semicircular model
was found to be more efficient than the
twisted one

Md. Quamrul Islam et.


al. 2005 [5]

Maximum torque is generated when blades are


at angle of 120o with wind velocity.

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CONTENT

Introduction
Literature Review

Design

CFD Analysis
Conclusion
Future Scope

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DESIGN

What are

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
And

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

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DESIGN > DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


what are the

Critical
Parameters

Pwind

Av 3
2

OR

Focus of our
study
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Power Proportional to (Wind


Speed)3
Power Proportional to (Rotor
Diameter)2

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DESIGN
DESIGN
STEPS
To analyze existing Savonius rotor design and
performance
To modify the design of Savonius rotor
To analyze modified Savonius rotor
To design parts

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SAVONIUS ROTOR


Power (P) watts

42

Velocity of wind (V) m/s

Coeffi cient of power (C p )

0.154

Tip speed ratio (TSR)

0.65

Overlap ratio ()

0.15

Inner radius for rotor blade (R)


mm

175

Rotor Overlap (a) mm

52.5

Rotor Diameter (D) mm

657.5

Height of Blade (H) mm

1620

Rotor Aspect ratio ()


Density of air ( ) kg/m 3
Density of PVC kg/m 3
Blade thickness (t) mm

1
1.2
1420
5

THEORITICAL POWER:
Pwind

1
Av 3 Cp
2

P = 21.24 watt

ACTUAL POWER
OBTAINED:
P = 9 watt

The Power output is much less than


expected
Optimum design configuration of Savonius rotor through wind tunnel

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UK Saha , S Thota, D Maity (2008),


experiments , Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 96 (2008)

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

MODIFICATION OF SAVONIUS ROTOR


Design methodology is as follows:
Determination of Blade Profile
Determination of Overlap Ratio
Determination of Rotor Diameter
Determination of Number of Blades
Selection of Blade Material

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

DETERMINATION OF BLADE PROFILE

Blade shape and geometry is kept


unchanged since it is found to be
efficient compared to other shapes

Blade Shape: Semi-circular

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UK Saha (4) Optimum design configuration of Savonius rotor through wind tunnel experiments, Journal of Wind
Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 96 (2008)

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS
DETERMINATION OF OVERLAP RATIO

From the research study we have noted that for a


Savonius rotor the optimal value for overlap is
zero.
Overlap ratio () =
0

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Gupta R.(2) Comparative study of a three bucket Savonius rotor with a combined three bucket Savonius three bladed
Darrieus rotor, Renewable Energy, (2013)

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

DETERMINATION OF ROTOR DIAMETER


Optimum value for aspect ratio
(H/D) = 0.8
Keeping height of rotor constant we
determine the rotor diameter

D = H / 0.8
D = 1620 / 0.8
D = 2000 mm

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A Biswas et al. [3] International journal of renewable energy research, Vol.3, No.4, (2013)

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS
1.2 kg/m3

V (air velocity )

6 m/s

CD (Drag coefficient )

2.3

Area exposed for blade


1

0.48 m2

Area exposed for blade


2

0.567 m2

Drag Force
x V 2 x CD
Drag Force

on Blades FD = 0.5 x A x

14.9
6

(air density)

23.9
4

DETERMINATION OF NUMBER OF BLADES

on Blade 1 FD1 = 23.94 N

Drag Force on Blades 2 FD2 = 14.96 N

F net = 9.25
N

Hence two blades hamper the


efficiency
UK Saha (4) Optimum design configuration of Savonius rotor through wind tunnel experiments, Journal of Wind
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Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 96 (2008)

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

DETERMINATION OF NUMBER OF BLADES


To overcome drawback, we suggest
to increase the number of blades to
three.
Research study concluded that
maximum drag force is experienced
when blades are 120o apart.

120o

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Md. Quamrul Islam et. al. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Engineering 2005 (ICME2005) 2830 December 2005, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

SELECTION OF BLADE MATERIAL


We have selected Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) for
blade material
Due to following advantages it
offers

Light weight

Complex shapes are easily accomplished


Resistant to corrosion
Resistant to fatigue damage with good damping
characteristics

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

ANALYSIS OF MODIFIED SAVONIUS ROTOR

The most important design variables are


Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) and Coefficient of
Power (Cp)

TSR = Vtip / V
Vtip = 3.14 x D x N /60
(N) = 33 rpm for wind velocity (V) =
6 m/s [6]

TSR = 0.57

Cp = 0.21

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Graph for Betz Limit for VAWT


[6]

JL Menet (2004), A double step Savonius rotor for the local generation of electricity: a design study, Renewable
Energy 29 (2004)

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS

ANALYSIS OF MODIFIED SAVONIUS ROTOR


Velocity

of

wind

(U)
6

m/s
Rotor Speed (N) rpm
Coeffi cient

of

33

Power
0.21

(Cp)
Tip speed ratio (TSR)
Overlap ratio ()

0.57
0

Rotor Diameter (D) mm

2000

Height of Blade (H) mm

1620

Density of air () kg/m 3

1.2

Drag coeffi cient

2.3

Mechanical Power of Wind


Turbine Pm
P = 2 x 3.14 x N x T / 60
P = 97.26
Watt
Theoretical Power of Wind
Turbine Pt
P = 0.5 x A x x V 3 x C p
P = 88.17
Watt
Power

Power

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DESIGN > DESIGN


STEPS
BRACKET ARM

Following
Bracket arm is
designed to
support the
blades

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CONTENT

Introduction
Literature Review
Design

CFD Analysis
Conclusion
Future Scope

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CFD ANALYSIS

The flow analysis for the modified Savonius rotor is


done for the range of wind velocity from 2 m/s to 8
m/s
Computational domain is 5m x 5m x 15m
Flow through the Savonius rotor blade, and then exit
through the outlet that is set to environmental
conditions

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CFD ANALYSIS
SAMPLE ANALYSIS (6 m/s)
Parameter
Pressure [Pa]
Temperature [K]
Density [kg/m^3]
Velocity [m/s]
X-component of Velocity [m/s]
Y-component of Velocity [m/s]
Z-component of Velocity [m/s]
Mach Number [ ]
Heat Transfer Coefficient
[W/m^2/K]
Shear Stress [Pa]
Fluid Temperature [K]
Condensate Mass Fraction [ ]
Moisture Content [ ]
Heat Flux [W/m^2]
X-component of Heat Flux
[W/m^2]
Y-component of Heat Flux
[W/m^2]
Z-component of Heat Flux
[W/m^2]
Parameter
Heat Transfer Rate [W]
Normal Force [N]

Shear Force [N]


Force [N]
Torque [N*m]
Surface Area [m^2]
Torque of Normal Force
[N*m]
Torque of Shear Force
[N*m]
Uniformity Index [ ]
CAD Fluid Area [m^2]

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Bul
k
Avg

Surface
area
[m^2]
0.503087
0.503087
0.503087
0.503087
0.503087
0.503087
0.503087
0.503087

Minimu
m
101295
293.216
1.19499
6
0
0
0
0

Maximu
m
101357
293.219
1.19554
6
0
0
0
0

Averag
e
101346
293.219
1.19548
6
0
0
0
0

0
1.6934E09
293.216
0
0
0

0.503637

0.423496
293.219
0
0
0

0
0.04118
91
293.219
0
0
0

0.503637

0.503637

0.503637
Surface
Zarea
component [m^2]
0
0.503637
3.64064
0.503637
0.0056483
8
0.503637
3.63499
0.503637
0.739427
0.503637

0
7.32404

Xcomponent
0
6.35504

0.006787
98
7.32448
9.02615

0.0037399
5
6.35878
-0.456129

0.503637

-0.297528

9.02499
0.001288
68
1
0.518222

-0.45663
0.0005013
44

Value

Ycomponent
0
0.0277127
0.00043045
4
0.0272823
8.98424
-3.73079E05
8.98306
0.00117918

0.503637
0.503087
0.503087
0.503087
0.503637

-0.167707

0.503637

0.73929
0.0001373
76

0.503637
0.503637
0.503087
0.518222

Velocity on blade ( m/s ) =


4.6

RPM = 33.15
P = 2 N T/ 60
P = 2 x 3.14 x 33.15 x
9.02499 / 60

P = 31.314
Watt
This Power obtained is
greater than Power for
conventional Savonius
rotor

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CFD ANALYSIS

Air Flow
Direction

Approx
4.6 m/s

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CFD ANALYSIS
RESULTS FOR POWER GENERATION FROM
Inlet air
Velocity on
CFD ANALYSIS
Sr.
RPM

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Power Output
(Watt)

No.

Velocity
(m/s)

Blade
(m/s)

1.65

2.5

1.7

2.13

3.5

2.49

3.26

4.5

3.52

25.39

13.077

3.78

27.24

17.588

5.5

4.03

29.04

22.884

4.6

10

6.5

4.8

11

4.9

12

7.5

5.1

13

5.31

11.89
12.25
15.4
17.95
23.52

33.15
34.59
35.68
36.76
38.27

0.991
1.263
2.968
5.261
9.490

31.314
38.582
46.330
55.388
66.252

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CONTENT
Introduction
Literature Review
Design
CFD Analysis

Summary &
Conclusion
Future Scope

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SUMMARY & CONCLUSION


The comparison between conventional Savonius wind turbine
and the modified Savonius wind turbine
Sr. No.

Parameters

Conventional Savonius
wind Turbine

Modified Savonius wind


Turbine

Height of Blade (H) (mm)

1620

(Design suggested by this


thesis)
1620

Width of Blade (W) (mm)

350

350

Number of Blades

Diameter of Rotor (mm)

657.5

2000

Air Velocity considered (m/s)

Blade Material

PVC

FRP

Weight of Blade (Kg)

6.5

5.5

Coefficient of Power (Cp)

0.154

0.21

10

Tip Speed Ration (TSR)

0.65

0.69

11

Overlap Ratio ()

0.15

12

Rotor Aspect Ratio ()

0.7

13

Air Density (Kg/m3)

1.2

1.2

14
15

Theoretical Power (Watt)


Power Output CFD Analysis

21
10

88
31

16

(Watt)
Actual Power Output (Watt)

7-8

25-28

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SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

The results from CFD analysis are found nearly same as the
analytical calculations
From our theoretical analysis the power output for modified
design is observed to be four times the conventional design
The power output from CFD analysis shows that the power
output for modified design is three times the conventional
design
The actual power output for modified is nearly three times
of the conventional design

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SUMMARY & CONCLUSION


FINAL SETUP & TESTING

The Test Model at testing


plant of
Breson Energy Ltd. Pune.
The Test results have validated
the outputs achieved from our
study.

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CONTENT

Introduction
Literature Review
Design
CFD Analysis
Summary & Conclusion

Future Scope

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FUTURE SCOPE
The Savonius wind turbine can be integrated with
Solar cell systems to enhance power generation
The ducted turbine concept can be implemented for
Savonius wind turbines to further increase its power
efficiency

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[1] C.Chaudhari,S.Waghmare,A.kotwal,"Numerical analysis of venturi ducted horizontal axis wind turbine for efficent power
generation"ISSN:2320-6349
Volume(I),October2013

10/01/2014

AUTHOR PUBLICATIONS & REFRENCES

Aditya S. Kasar, Ajinkya Shetye, Prof (Dr.) Vilas B. Shinde Design


Optimization of Savonius Rotor for Wind turbine, International Journal of
Advances in Management Technology & Engineering Sciences, ISSN:
2249-7455 , Vol. II, Issue 9 (I), June 2013.

Aditya S. Kasar, Chandan C. Chaudhari, Prof (Dr.) Vilas B. Shinde Design


and Analysis of 5 KW Savonius Rotor Blade, International Journal of
Advances in Management Technology & Engineering Sciences, ISSN:
2249-7455 ,Vol. II, Issue 10 (I), July 2013.

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AUTHOR PUBLICATIONS & REFRENCES


[1] JL Menet (2004), A double step Savoniusrotor for the local generation of electricity: A
design study, Renewable Energy (2004)
[2] Gupta, R., Biswas, A., Sharma, K. K. (2008), Comparative study of a three bucket Savonius
rotor with a combined three bucket Savonius three bladed Darrieus rotor. Renewable
Energy.
[3] Burcin Deda Altan, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology May 2012,Volume
26,Issue 5.
[4] UK Saha , S Thota, D Maity (2008), Optimum design configuration of Savonius rotor
through wind tunnel experiments ; Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial
Aerodynamics 96 (2008).
[5] C.Chaudhari, S.Waghmare, A.kotwal, "Numerical analysis of venturi ducted horizontal axis
wind turbine for efficient power generation ISSN:2320-6349 Volume(I),October2013
[6] Sargolazei J(2007), Prediction of power ratio and torque in wind turbine Savonius rotors
using artificial neural networks, Proceedings of the WSEAS International Conference on
Renewable Energy Sources, Arcachon, France, October Page (14-16)
[7] Wind Turbine Technology by A.R.JHA
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AUTHOR PUBLICATIONS & REFRENCES


[8] Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines By Martin O. L.Hansen
[9] Md. I. Hassan, T.Iqbal, N. Khan, M.Hinchey, V.Masek(2009), CFD analysis of a twisted
Savonius wind turbine Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
[10] Kamoji. M. A, S. B. Kedare and S. V. Prabhu (2008), Experimental Investigations on the
Effect of Overlap Ratio and Blade Edge Conditions on the Performance of conventional
Savonius Rotor, Wind engineering, Volume 32, No. 2, pp 163178
[11] Manual from Breson Wind Energy System.
[12] http://sauerenergy.com/
[13] http://www.turbinesinfo.com/innovative-wind-turbines
[15] http://www.search.com/reference/Savonius_wind_turbine

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THANK YOU