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POWDER MET

Introduction
Highly developed method of manufacturing
precision metal parts.
Concerned with the production of metal
powders and converted them to useful shape.
It is a material processing technique in which
particulate materials are consolidated to
semi-finished products.

History
Early Egyptians iron implants which date
from at least 3000 BC.
In Greece the manufacture of iron
components were widespread in 800-600
BC.
Manufacture of large objects were known
to Indians as early as 300 AD.

Wollaston (England) and Sobolevskiy


(Russia)-early nineteenth century for
processing platinum.
The first modern PM product was the
tungsten filament for electric light bulbs
developed in the early 1900s.

Advanta
ges
Complex shapes can be produced
Scrap is eliminated or reduced
Wide composition variations are possible
Eliminates or minimizes machining
High production rates

Disadvant
ages
Inferior strength properties
High material cost
the size will always change on sintering.
potential workforce health problems from
atmospheric contamination of the
workplace.

Atomizati

on

Produces a
liquid-metal
stream by
injecting
molten
metal
through
small orifice.
The stream
is broken up
by jets of
inert gas,

Reduction
- Uses gases (hydrogen
and CO) to remove
oxygen from metal
oxides.
Electrolytic deposition
- Utilizes aqueous
solutions. Produces purest
form of metal powder.

Mechanical
alloying
-Powders of
two or more
pure metals
are mixed in
a ball mill.
This process
forms alloy
powders

Example Parts

Basic Steps In Powder


Metallurgy (P/M)
1.Powder Production
2.Blending or Mixing
3.Compaction
4.Sintering
5.Finishing

Powder
Production
Atomization the most common
Others
Chemical reduction of oxides
Electrolytic deposition
Different shapes produced
Will affect compaction process
significantly

Blending or Mixing
Can use master alloys, (most commonly)
or elemental powders that are used to
build up the alloys
Master alloys are with the normal
alloy ingredients
Elemental or pre-alloyed metal powders
are first mixed with lubricants or other
alloy
additions
to
produce
a
homogeneous mixture of ingredients

Blending or Mixing
The initial mixing may be done by either
the metal powder producer or the P/M
parts manufacturer.
When the particles are blended:
Desire to produce a homogenous blend
Over-mixing
will
work-harden
the
particles and produce variability in the
sintering process

EQUIPMENT USED IN MIXING:

DOUBLE CONE MIXER

Compaction
Usually gravity filled cavity
at room temperature
Pressed at 60-100 ksi
Produces a Green
compact
Size and shape of
finished part (almost)
Not as strong as
finished part handling
concern
Friction between particles
is a major factor

Isostatic
Pressing
Because of friction between particles
Apply pressure uniformly from all directions (in
theory)

Sintering
Parts are heated to
~80% of melting
temperature
Transforms compacted
mechanical bonds to
much stronger metal
bonds
Many parts are done at
this stage. Some will
require additional
processing

Sintering
Final part properties drastically
affected
Fully sintered is not always the goal
ex. Self lubricated bushings
Dimensions of part are affected

Die Design for P/M


Thin walls and projections create fragile tooling.
Holes in pressing direction can be round, square, Dshaped, keyed, splined or any straight-through shape.
Draft is generally not required.
Generous radii and fillets are desirable to extend tool
life.
Chamfers, rather the radii, are necessary on part
edges to prevent burring.
Flats are necessary on chamfers to eliminate featheredges on tools, which break easily.

COMMON USES
Automotive Components
Medical Implants
Tubing and Piping
Models
Restoration projects
Kitchenware
Sculptures
Artistic materials
Machinery

IMPORTANCE TO
SOCIETY
Powder Metallurgy is an effective and
profitable material processing route
to produce a variety of products for
engineering industries.

CONCLUSION
Powder metallurgy
utilizes 95% of the raw material
used
uses less energy compare to any
other metal manufacturing