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2015Hazardous Materials

Commodity Flow Study
Linn County, Iowa
Linn County Local Emergency Planning
Committee

Background
 1986 - Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
Act (EPCRA)
 Encourage & support emergency planning at state and local
levels
 Provide the public and local governments with information
regarding potential chemical hazards in their communities

 Created Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPC) and
tasked them with the development of chemical emergency
response plans, which must reviewed annually
 Linn County LEPC includes representatives from:
 Industry, Elected Officials, Law Enforcement, Fire/EMS, Public
Health, Hospitals, EMA, and Community Groups

Background
 Lack of updated hazardous material (hazmat) flow
data identified as a significant gap in preparedness
planning by Linn County LEPC
 Last study completed 1997 – 1998
 Cooperative effort with Region 6 and Dubuque County
LEPCs (Linn, Benton, Buchanan, Cedar, Clayton, Clinton, Delaware, Fayette, Jackson, Jones & Dubuque)
 Hazmat commodity flows evaluated over a much
larger geographic area in East-Central Iowa
 One-time funding provided by Linn County Board of
Supervisors

Purpose
 Identify types and amounts of hazmat moving
through a geographic area
 Identify hazmat routes
 Identify unique transportation containers
 Identify “targets of opportunity” for potential
terrorists
 Assess potential impact of hazmat release along
studied routes
 IMPROVE PUBLIC SAFETY

Benefits
 Helps emergency responders and elected
officials identify:





High risk transportation routes
Spatial extent of potential threats
Training & equipment needs
Resource allocation
Preventative measures
Preparedness measures

Transport Modes

Highway

Railroads

Pipeline

I380
HWY30
HWY13
HWY151

Union Pacific
Iowa Northern
Canadian
National

MidAmerican
Energy
Alliant Energy
Northern Natural
Gas
Black Hills Energy
Buckeye Partners
Magellan Pipeline

Maps
HWY

Rail

Pipeline

Mode-Specific Concerns
Highway

Greater public exposure potential due
to high personal vehicle traffic and
proximity to commercial and
residential occupancies.
Wide variety of container types and
hazards – special attention should be
paid to bulk shipments of gaseous
ammonia, chlorine, and sulfur dioxide.

Rail

Large tank volumes can quickly
exceed the capabilities and
resources of a community.
Rail related chemical
emergencies can be difficult and
extremely challenging for myriad
of reasons (unfamiliarity with rail
operations, jurisdictional issues,
direct communication, etc.)

Pipeline

Have the potential to release the
greatest volume of hazmat of any of
the modes in Linn County.
Vulnerable exposures such as
population centers, sensitive
environmental areas, critical
systems, and high value property in
close proximity to pipelines should
be identified and plans made to
insure protection in the event of a
release.

Highway

HWY Volumes (24-hr)

I380 – Daily
 I380 Highest 24-hr volume for
highway transport
 2.5% of truck shipments were
hazmat
 ~322 hazmat shipments per 24hr period – 1 every 5 minutes
 Flammable liquids topped the list
 Vulnerability Zone: 0.9 miles
(NH3 w/AEGL-2)
 Est. maximum population
impacted at any point on the
route is 7,000 – 8,000 people
(exclusive of the daily worker
population)

AEGL-2 is the airborne concentration
(expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance
above which it is predicted that the general
population, including susceptible individuals,
could experience irreversible or other
serious, long-lasting adverse health effects
or an impaired ability to escape.

Rail
 ~97,000 loads of hazmat
annually (8,100
loads/month)
 Pressurized cars with
liquid capacities of
20,000 – 40,000 gallons
travel through densely
populated areas (sulfur
dioxide, ethylene oxide,
ammonia)
 Vulnerability Zone: 1.2
miles (SO2 w/AEGL-3)

AEGL-3 is the airborne concentration,
expressed as parts per million (ppm) or
milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), of a
substance above which it is predicted that
the general population, including susceptible
individuals, could experience life-threatening
health effects or death.

Trends
1998 to 2015
I380
 24-hr truck count has
increased 3,540 –
12,960 (3.7x)
 % propane and
corrosive loads are
higher (2x)

Total Rail
 Monthly hazmat loads
have increased 1900 –
8100 (4.3x)
 Flammable liquids and
corrosives loads
continue to be the
highest volume hazmat

Final Conclusions



Releases are likely to occur along highway
routes (most likely I380) where there is the
potential for significant impact on densely
populated areas requiring a well-coordinated
effort to notify, communicate, and protect the
general public.
Airborne release of toxic substances such as
chlorine and sulfur dioxide from both highway
and rail transports could rapidly impact
thousands of people. Detection and monitoring
equipment capable of detecting such
substances are critical to public protection
decisions.
A well-trained and equipped Hazardous
Materials Team is critical to ensure the quickest
response to protect the public from the effects
of releases.
Hazmat training should be varied and kept
refreshed.
The chemical volumes and varieties observed
during this study are some of the greatest the
EHS Resource Group has observed.
Public protection measures (i.e. evacuation and

Releases are most likely to
occur on I380
Chlorine & sulfur dioxide
gas can impact thousands
very quickly
Well-trained hazmat teams
are critical
Chemical volumes and
varieties are very high
Public protection measures
must be exercised
regularly

Linn County Hazmat Teams
 Linn County Regional Hazmat Team
 Highly Trained Volunteers
 Respond to hazmat incidents outside of Cedar Rapids
 Provide back-up to the Cedar Rapids Fire
Department’s Hazmat Team
 Also provides response coverage to Benton,
Buchanan, ½ Cedar, Clayton, Delaware, Fayette,
Iowa, and Jones Counties

 Cedar Rapids Fire Department’s Hazmat Team
 Professional Fire Fighters
 Respond to hazmat incidents within Cedar Rapids
 Provide back-up to the Linn County Hazmat
Team

 Collectively, these two teams provide the
expertise, equipment and manpower to
respond to a wide variety of complex hazmat
incidents in our community.

Next Steps
 Full study provided to Linn County EMA, Linn County
Regional Hazmat Team, and Cedar Rapids Fire
Department
 Linn County LEPC will establish a subcommittee that will
be responsible for completing a gap assessment in
response to this hazmat flow study. This assessment
will be a collaborative effort with Region 6 LEPC in
FFY17.
 Any required corrective action for Linn County will be
captured and tracked to completion by the Linn County
LEPC.