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• Sampling is the process of selecting a
small number of elements from a
larger defined target group of
elements such that the information
gathered from the small group will
allow judgments to be made about
the larger groups
Terms used in sampling
• POPULATION/ UNIVERSE: Complete group of entities sharing
some common set of characteristics.

• POPULATION ELEMENT : An individual member of a specific

• SAMPLE : Subset or some part of a larger population

• CENSUS : An investigation of all the individual elements making
up a population

• SAMPLING ERROR : It is any type of bias that is attributable
to mistakes in either drawing a sample or determining the sample

Probability Nonprobability
sampling sampling
Probability Nonprobability
• Simple random • Convenience
sampling sampling
• Systematic random • Judgment sampling
sampling • Quota sampling
• Stratified random • Snowball sampling
• Cluster sampling
• Probability samples: ones in which
members of the population have a
known chance (probability) of being
• Non-probability samples: instances
in which the chances (probability) of
selecting members from the
population are unknown

• Simple random sampling: the
probability of being selected is
“known and equal” for all members
of the population
• It is a method of probability sampling in which the
defined target population is ordered and the
sample is selected according to position using a
skip interval.

• Sample is chosen by se3lecting a random starting
point and then picking every ith element in
succession from the sampling frame .

• Ith= sampling interval
• 1: Obtain a list of units that contains an
acceptable frame of the target population
• 2: Determine the number of units in the list and
the desired sample size
• 3: Compute the skip interval
• 4: Determine a random start point
• 5: Beginning at the start point, select the units
by choosing each unit that corresponds to the
skip interval
• It is a method of probability sampling
in which the population is divided into
different sub groups and samples are
selected from each.
• 1: Divide the target population into
homogeneous subgroups or strata
• 2: Draw random samples fro each stratum
• 3: Combine the samples from each
stratum into a single sample of the target
• Cluster sampling involves growing the
elements in a population into various
clusters and then selecting a few
clusters randomly for further study.
• The researcher should ensure
that clusters are homogeneous
(based on some characteristic of
the units ) in nature and the
elements in the cluster are as
heterogeneous as possible i.e.
each cluster should be similar to
the population.
Convenience sampling relies
upon convenience and access

Judgment sampling relies upon belief
that participants fit characteristics

Quota sampling emphasizes representation
of specific characteristics

Snowball sampling relies upon respondent
referrals of others with like characteristics
Convenience sampling
• samples are selected based on
judgmental sampling
• In judgmental sampling, the person
doing the sample uses his/her
knowledge or experience to select
the items to be sampled.