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PHY101: Introduction to Physics I

Monsoon Semester 2015-

16

Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University

Aims of this course

To bridge the gap between the 10+2 and standard undergraduate levels.

To develop an understanding of basic Physics laws and skills to apply various physical concepts to science and engineering through problem solving.

Course outline and syllabus

Mechanics:

Reference frames and Coordinate systems Newton’s laws of motion in vector notation Conservation of energy Application of Newton’s laws of motion Dynamical stability of systems: Potential energy diagram Collisions: Impulse, conservation of energy and linear momentum Conservation of angular momentum and rotation of

Thermal Physics:

Averages, probability and probability distributions

Thermal equilibrium and macroscopic variables:

Pressure of an ideal gas from Newton’s laws - the kinetic theory of gases. Maxwell’s velocity distribution

Laws of Thermodynamics and the statistical origin of the second law of thermodynamics

Application of thermodynamics: Efficiency of heat engines and air-conditioners, Thermodynamics of batteries and rubber bands

Competency

At the end of the course you should be able to:

Understand the laws of Newtonian mechanics and apply these laws to study kinematics of many body and rigid body systems.

Demonstrate the understanding of Kinetic theory of gases, Laws of Thermodynamics, Concept of entropy etc., and apply this understanding to various physical systems.

urse Materials

t/Reference books:

n Introduction to Mechanics, by Kleppner and Kolen hysics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Phy y J. W. Jewett, R. A. Serway undamentals of Physics, by Resnick, Halliday and W eynman Lecture Series, Vols. 1 & 3

ther relevant materials

ideos, animations, web sources

Assessment scheme

One mid semester exam: 30% (24- 26 th Sept) 2 quizzes: 30% (15% each) (28 th Aug & 2 nd Nov) End-semester examination: 40% (1 st Week Dec) Minimum passing marks (Abs. scale):

Syllabus for the examinations

Mid Sems.

Topics covered up to one day before the scheduled examination day

End Sems.

Topic covered up to mid sems. exam:

40-50 %

Topic covered from mid sems. to the end sems. Exam: 50-60%

Each Quiz: 10-15 min

Physics is the most fundamental and all-inclusive of the sciences, and has had a profound effect on all scientific development.

-RICHARD FEYNMAN

Motivation

Why bother to learn concepts and principles which were proposed or formulated centuries ago?

Physics is all around us, all the time

Physics is all around us, all the time http://www.diplomaframe.com/about-us/press-releases/press-release- may-22-2009.aspx

http://www.diplomaframe.com/about-us/press-releases/press-release-

may-22-2009.aspx

Matter and Energy

All the objects around us are called bodies

Matter and Energy • All the objects around us are called bodies • Matter is the
Matter and Energy • All the objects around us are called bodies • Matter is the
Matter and Energy • All the objects around us are called bodies • Matter is the

Matter is the material of which all bodies are made of

Energy is that invisible agency which can bring internal or external change in matter

oal can be crushed into powder echanical energy has brought change in matt Heat energy of

oal can be crushed into powder

oal can be crushed into powder echanical energy has brought change in matt Heat energy of

echanical energy has brought change in matt

oal can be crushed into powder echanical energy has brought change in matt Heat energy of

Heat energy of the fire has brought change in matter

http://www.hammermills.com/size-reduction-product-categories-schutte-buffalo-

hammermill/hammer-mills/industrial-hammer-mills/wa-series-hammer-mill

http://www.123rf.com/photo_5551459_coal-miner-at-work-with-pneumatic-drill.html

http://arizonamechanicalengineering.com/Solid%20Fuel%20Combustion

All natural phenomena are the effects of action of the energy in matter

Properties of Matter

Occupies space

Offers resistance when any force is applied to displace it or stop when moving

Properties of inertia

Transfer momentum, which makes another body to change its motion by colliding

Feels gravitational attraction

Properties of Energy

Energy brings changes in the matter

Matter cannot undergo any change by itself

In nature, 3 classes of change can be seen:

Change in position (moving car)

Change in condition/state (boiling off of water)

g the change, neither Matter nor Energy suffers from destru

Change in constitution/type (Burning of coal)

Physics is developed by learning how to measure the quantities involved

What is quantity?

It is used to mean any thing that can be measured such as length, time, temperature, pressure, etc.

Laws and Principles

They represent the relation between different physical quantities

Example: Force = mass x acceleration

Each quantity is measured with its own unit, by comparison with a standard

Unit is an universal name assigned for measuring a quantity

Example: 1 kg

  • 1 m

  • 1 hr

Physical quantity = Numerical value + Unit

There are several physical quantities, BUT they are not independent

Example: Speed = Length/Time = 20 m/5 s = 4 m/s

Physical quantities are expressed by 3 fundamental quantities:

Length [L] Mass [M] Time [T]

Example: momentum = mass x velocity

= mass x displacement/time = [MLT -1 ]

Dimensions of Physical quantities

Dimension of a quantity signifies its physical nature

Derived Units

Units derived from Fundamental units

Example: Area of a plane [A] = [L] 2 2

Dimension

Volume [V] = [L] 3 3 Dimension

[ML -3 ]

[LT

-2

]

What would be the dimension of

density which is mass/volume?

Dimensional analysis

• The time period t of small oscillations in a simple pendulum of length l is
• The time period t of small oscillations
in a simple pendulum of length l is
given by (g is the acceleration due to
gravity
(a) , (b) (c)

What is Scientific notation?

To express very large and small quantities using power of 10

Example:

35000000 m = 3.5 x 10 7 m

0.000 000 49 m = 4.9 x 10 -7 m

Using Prefix

1.29 x 10 9 W = 1.27 GW

2.53 x 10 -9 s = 2.53 ns

“Fundamentals of Physics” by Halliday and Res

“Fundamentals of Physics” by Halliday and Res

Order of Magnitude

Examples:

Mean diameter of Sun, D S 1392684 km

Mean diameter of Earth, D E 12742 km

D S /D E 1.4 x 10 6 /1.3 x 10 4 ~ 10 2 he mean diameter of Sun is two orders of magnitude larger than the Earth

The universe is 13.8 billion years old. The average human life expectancy is ~70 years. How many orders of magnitude is the former larger than the latter.

(a)10 3 , (b) 10 5 , (c) 10 8 , (d) 10 11

Elementary calculus

Elementary calculus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Graph_of_sliding_derivati
Elementary calculus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Graph_of_sliding_derivati
Elementary calculus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Graph_of_sliding_derivati

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Graph_of_sliding_derivati

Show Hint: Consider a + bx = z
Show
Show

Hint: Consider

a + bx = z

The definite integral

can be interpreted as

area (signed)

under the curve

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Integral_exa

mple.svg

 The definite integral can be interpreted as area (signed) under the curve http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Integral_exa mple.svg
 The definite integral can be interpreted as area (signed) under the curve http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Integral_exa mple.svg