Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination Angie Andriot

Lecture 8

Race versus ethnicity  Rise of multiraciality as a legitimate category  Ethnic identity work

Last Time, We: Race versus ethnicity

A group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group

RACE

Based on perceived biological differences

Black the way we create racial categories White from this data is socially constructed Asian Native American Pacific Islander

Ethnicity
A group of people with a shared cultural background that distinguish it from another group
Hispanic Irish Scottish German Jewish
Based on perceived cultural differences

Ethnicity is more easily achieved, while race is typically ascribed

Strength of identification influenced by:
    Relative size Power Appearance Discrimination

Ethnic Identity

Ethnic work – the way people construct their ethnicity

group  Stereotype, Prejudice, and Discrimination  What’s the difference?  Why do we do them?  How do they happen?

Today’s Agenda: Minority versus Dominant

Minorit y and groups

Minority & Dominant Groups
 Minority Group - People Singled Out for Unequal Treatment  Minority Group Can Be Racial or Ethnic  A Minority Group is Not Necessarily Numerical Minority
 Women

Dominant Groups
 The group with the most
 Power  Privileges  Highest social class

 Not called ‘majority’ group  Group that does the discriminating

Minority Groups
 Membership is an Ascribed Status  Physical or Cultural Traits Held in Low Esteem by Dominant Group  Unequal Treatment  Marry Within Own Group  Feel Strong Group Solidarity

Stereotyp
ing discrimina tion
and

Stereotypes: Stereotypes
Prototypes Hierarchical Subtypes Invariate

Cognitive structure that contains our knowledge, beliefs, and An ecological expectations fallacy occurs when an analysis of group data about a used to draw conclusions social is about group an individual.

:

Stereotypes: Stereotypes
Just because people say it’s inappropriate to judge people on the basis of their membership in certain categories, doesn’t mean they don’t do it.
Activation and use of stereotypes/ prejudice is often at the implicit (unaware) level

:

Group Mean: Mean

White

Black

Normal Distribution: Distribution
x

y

White

Black

Prejudice
 Stereotyping is a categorization system  Prejudice is an attitude—the prejudging of a person based on their group membership +
Exaggerated or made up virtues

Exaggerated or made up faults

Why are people prejudice?
 Psychological Tendency  Socialization Process  Media  Family Sometimes people will  Peers internalize dominant norms and show prejudice  School against their own group

Discrimination
 Discrimination is an action—unfair treatment directed at an individual based on their membership in a marginalized group
 Racial discrimination is one example Racial prejudice/discrimination + POWER = racism

Individual Discrimination
 The negative treatment of one person by another on the basis of their race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, age, sexuality, etc.  Sociologists argue we need to get away from thinking in these terms
 These are individual problems, but they are symptoms of social problems

Institutional Discrimination
 Structural discrimination is woven into the fabric of our life  Those individuals who engage in racist activities are to a certain extent responding to a larger social structure • Unseen • Not directly racist • Insidious • Difficult to detect… therefore, it is also easier to deny its existence

Institutional Discrimination

Institutional Discrimination
 Does not have to be deliberate – and often isn’t  Often, neither side realizes it is occurring

Institutional Discrimination

The reason for these differences is not biology, but social factors, in this case largely income – the key factor in determining who has access to better nutrition, housing, and medical care

Can we all succeed?

HARD WORK

HARD WORK

HARD WORK

Color Blindness
 supporters perceive it as act of equality in that it involves the beneficial, deliberate avoidance of privileging any one race over others  critics perceive it as an indirect act of oppression because it ignores and overlooks the privileges already bestowed upon certain races over others

White Solipsism
 What is “normal” skin, anyway?  What is the opposite of normal?  What are the implications here?

Can we all succeed?

HARD WORK

HARD WORK

HARD WORK

Affirmative Action

 One way the United States has tried to diminish racial and gender inequality is through affirmative action policies
 to treat unequals as equals is to perpetuate inequality  a response to a statistically observed inequity in representation

“ Affirmative action increases diversity by disc ”

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