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Chapter 1
General describtion of

1. Definition
Filtration is a process of separating dispersed particles from a dispersing
fluid by means of porous media. The dispersing medium can be a gas (or
gas mixture) or a liquid. Particles can be solid or liquid for gas medium and
solid for liquid medium.

Face of the filter with „filter cake“ of
deposited particles


Particles deposited
inside the filter





2. Types of filtration
Concerning to filtration surrouding:
Air filtration / Liquid filtration
Concerning to size of filtered particles:

for particle size dp: 10-6 m < dp


10-7 < dp < 10-6


10-8 < dp < 10-7


10-9 < dp < 10-8

Reverse osmosis dp < 10-9
Concerning to filtration mechanism:
Flat filtration / Depth filtration

air cleaning etc…). car filters (oil filters. spunlace…). cooling liquids. exhaust filters)… Examples of liquid filtration: drink water treatment. fuel (petrol) filters…)… . power plants. chemical processing. industrial filters (cutting operations.2. car filters (cabin filters. paint boxes.1 Air / liquid filtration Examples of air filtration: respirators. chemical processing. batteries. engine filters. waste water treatment. vacuum cleaners. industrial filters for incineration. air ventilation systems (air condition.

2 Relative size of common filtered particles .2.

Surface filtration is common for liquid filtration. It is typical for example for fabric or spunbond filters. Thus for these filters the pores distribution and permeability are important properties.2. Surface filters are described in subject „High funcional textiles“ Direction of flow Captured particles Textile filter expressed as a set of cylinders placed in parallel .3 Surface filtration All particles which are bigger than pores are captured on the flat filter surface.

4 Depth filtration Depth filter are able to capture particles that are too small to be sieved out as in flat filtration.2. Direction of flow Captured particles Textile filter expressed as a set of cylinders placed in parallel . properties and mechanisms refer first of all to the deep filtration. This type of the filtration process is importatn for the most of filter applications. Particles. which can be a lot of smaller than the distances between the fibers penetrate into the fiber structure. Filtered particles are captured in terms of the filtration mechanisms. Next chapters about filtration variables.

FILTRATION THEORY It´s simple to say “what is filtration” but difficult to describe relations between filter properties and filtration variables which influence the filtration process This is what we can change This is what we try know This is what we need Filtration properties Filtration variables • Filter variables • Flowing medium variables • Captured particles variables Filtration mechanisms • Diffusion deposition • Direct interception • Inertial deposition • Electrostatic deposition • Sieve effect • Efficiency • Pressure drop • Lifetime • Resistivity against environment • Others (permeability.. porosity..3.) .

1 Filtration properties I. Efficiency can be defined by formula 1.100 G2   formula 1.3. where G1 is an amount of penetrated particles (which haven´t been captured) and G2 is total amount of particles upstream  G  E   1  1  .4 Nonstationary filtration) . Expression G1/G2 is named „Penetration“ of filter Efficieny is changing during the filtration process (see chapter 6. Filter efficiency It is the ratio of particles captured by a filter over the total number of particles found in the air upstream of the filter.3. Filter efficiency can either be based on specific particle size ranges or based on the total number of particles of all sizes.

which are loaded into the filter until the filter is where Es is mean filter efficiency and mp is the amount of the particles loaded into the filter until the final pressure drop (250 or 400 Pa) was reached .4 Nonstationary filtration). Filter lifetime Filter lifetime determines the time when the filter must be removed. It is defined as a difference between the pressure of flowing media upstream and downstream of the filter. Pressure drop Pressure drop indicates the restance to flow. p = p1 . where p1 is pressure drop upstream and p2 downstream of the filter. According to EN 779 standard the filter lifetime is defined as a „Dust holding capacity“: J = Es.p2.3. For expression of pressure drop is necessary to assign air flow or air velocity (linear relation). It is defined as a time or as an amount of the filtered particles. Pressure drop is changed during the filtration proces (see chapter 6.Filtration properties II.

Permeability It is the ability of a material to allow the passage of a liquid or gas through porous material. whic depend on the level of simplification: 1) According to EDANA 140.p where k1 is the permeability coefficient (m2).p where K is permeability (m/Pa/sec) and p is the pressure drop (Pa).1 Pa for some standards) 2) According to the Darcy´s law the permeability is defined by formula: K  Q A.s law is possible to define permeability as a „permeability coefficient“ defined by formula: Q .sec). Permeability is tested with the pressure drop 196 Pa (98.  is the dynamic viskosity (Pa. and h (m) is the thickness of the filter. Q is the flow (l/min)and A is the filter surface. It is possible to find more defininitions. .Filtration properties III.1 standard it is defined by formula: MS  Q A where Ms is permeability (l/dm2/min).h. 3) According to the Darcy. k1  A.

where pi and K1i are pressure drop and peremability coefficients of each layers .Q K 3 . Permeabilityof laminated textiles For simple D´Arcy´s law it is possible to deduce relation between the permeability of one layer and more layers.h 2 . the main difference is nonlinear relation between flow and pressure drop. Than the total pressure drop and total permeability are defined: pt   pi i and 1 K1total  i 1 K1i .A A where K3 is permeability coefficient and C is form coefficient.C.Filtration properties IV. This model is suitable for higher flow of viscose liquid (such as water etc…). According Hagen-Dupuit-D´Arcy´s model is permeability defined as: p   . 4. When we compare HDD model with D´Arcy´s law.Q  .h  . For most of the applications we can assume that the flow through the laminated textile is the some as flow through one layer.

Filtration properties V. Very important is size or size distribution of pores. . a) Wetting agent is pushed away from textile due to pressured gas – Bubble point method b) Non-wetting agent is pushed into the textile – Mercury porosimetry For more informations see subject „High functional textiles“. Sifting of defined particles through the textile 3. Testing methods: 1. Penetration of liquid agent into the textile – relation between pore size and surface tension of liquid. which depends on the pore definition and on the used test method. Image analysis of 2D microscopic wiew – direct method 2. Porosity and pore size Porosity of porous medium is defined as a percentage of the porous material volume not occupied by fibers.

Filtration properties VI. When we can measure flow rate of gas is possible to measure the distribution of pore sizes.D. Against this force we can act by pressured gas (Fp = p. Wetting liquid (wetting angle = 0) try to go through the pores due to wetting force F= . F =  . At first bubbles are going through the maximum pore. Description of simple Bubble point method: We assume circular pores.Apore). D is pore diameter.  is liquid surface tension. When the first bubble of gas is going through the pore – both forces are in equilibrium. .  . p is gas pressure and Apore is pore cross section surface. Apore textile . D bubble Wetting agent D Fp = p .

Filter destruction . Particle disengagement • decrease of filter efficiency 3. It is possible in the beginning of the filtration process. 1964].1 Change of filtration properties Statinary and nonstacionary filtration It is important that the filtration properties are changing during the filtration process. A captured particle. since it occupies a finite space. When we neglect this assumption the filtration process is named „stationary“. Secondary proceses of nonstationary filtration are: 1.1. Filter clogging – particles fill the filter structure • increase of pressure drop • increase of filter efficiency 2. becomes part of the filter structure.3. When we assume that the deposited particle influences filter properties the filtration process is named „nonstationary“ [Pich. Loss of electric charge • decrease of filter efficiency 5. Capillary phenomena • flushing of drops • formation of fluid layers in placed where the fibers are spiced • condensation of water 4. able to contribute both to pressure drop and to filtration efficiency.

This test is replaced with DEHS aerosol method because athmosperic air composition is changing. particle concentration etc..).2 Test method of filtration properties: Tested properties are efficiency. This method is very popular and easy to use. pressure drop vs.2 etc.. Properties are tested as initial or during filtration process. filter lifetime etc. It is possible to test change of properties during the filtration process and filter lifetime. air flow. ASHRAE 52. .3. Used standard was older version of EN 779 [Gustavsson. However. adhesion etc..2. 1999]. 1999] . It is used for coarse filters (particles are coarse and polydisperse). The most known is ASHRAE dust that has the some parameters as the dust around Arizona roads [ASHRAE 52...1. pressure drop. fractional efficiency.. 1) Synthetic dust The dust is blend prepared from melted anorganic (and organic) particles. 2) Athmospheric dust spot efficiency In the Atmospheric Dust Spot Efficiency ambient outdoor atmospheric air is passed through the unit being tested and samples are taken at the inlet and outlet of the unit to evaluate its collection efficiency on the dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. polydisperse). it is open to criticism because weight measurements give predominantly the weight of the largest particles in the sample. 200].. particle size range (monodisperse.. Dust is measured by weighting method. Used standards are: EN 779 [EN 779. particle size (coarse/fine). Methods are differ in the particle substance (electrical properties.

Particles are analysed by comparing of the blue colour intensity upstream and downstream the filter.. This method is suitable for quick test of high efficient filters (respirators especially). The most known are: dioctylphtalate (DOP). These polydisperse particles have mean size 0. 1969]. paraffin oil) As the test matter is used aerosol from liquid oily substances. 4) NaCl aerosol Sodium Chloride aquelous solution is dispersed and dryed. Particles are analyzed by laser particle counter or by spectrofotometric method. diethylhexylsebacate (DEHS) and paraffin oil. It is suitable to high efficient filters. Two types of oil aerosol are known: Cold and hot. 2000]. etc. EN 143 [EN 143.3) Oil aerosols (DEHS.1-0. Initial values of This method is used for fine and high efficient filters – HEPA (high efficiency particulate air filter) and ULPA (ultra low penetration air filter) filters. By reason of narow gauge usage is replaced by sodium chloride aerosol test. If the oil is dispersed and dryed in cold ambient conditions (Laskin nozzle) then the size range of particles is wider (polydiperse aerosol). DOP. 65 m and their penetration through the filter is analysed by spectrofotometer. . If the oil is dispersed and dryed in hot ambient conditions then is possible to obtain monodisperse particles (0.. Used standards are: BS 4400 [BS 4400. Particles are insenzitive to electrostatic field. 5) Methylen blue test The solution of methylen blue is dispersed and dryed. It is possible to detect efficiency of selected particle size (except paraffin oil).3 m).

Summary of test methods: method synthetic dust Test standard particle substance name ANSI/AHAM Arizona roads dust particle particle diameter preparation (m) 0.5 .3 – 2 Laskin UL nozzle EN EN BS aerosol NaCl Methylene Blue test BS EUROVENT EN NF BS DEHS aerosol 0. CP27 DAB7 condensation NaCl particles 0. diethylhexylsebacate condensation 0.40.02-2 median 0. drying Methylen blue particles - dispersion of water solution photometer of the light diffusion spectrofotometer blue spot size . IES spectrofotometer MIL-STD 0.3 condensation counter. 0. optical particle ASME/ANSI di-octylphtalate 0.40 athmospheric ASHRAE Athmospheric dust Cca.3 evaporation. 0.3 evaporation.6 dispersion. 0.3 aerosol generator injector particle detection aerodynamic sorter weighting method ASHRAE 72% fine dust EN 23% molocco black CAN 5% cotton linters ISO Testing dust 2 – 125 SAE 10 .1 – 0.2 – 0.26 evaporation.2 – 3 Laskin nozzle Paraffin oil.3 straight from opacitometer dust CAN air (light opacity) oil aerosol ASTM DOP test.

3. Variables of filtration process . Variables of filtered particles 3. Variables of filter material 2.2 Filtration variables Filtration variables are divided onto three groups: 1.

. solvents..1 Variables of filter material: •Filtration area •Filter thickness •Density and surface density of filter •Uniformity of fibrous material •Parameters of filter material •surface interactions between the filter material and filtered particles •electrical properties •mechanical characteristics (tenacity..2.) •Parameters of fibers •fiber diameter.3..) •resistance against surrounding factors (heat. elongation. fiber fineness •shape of fiber cross-section •fiber surface preparations •Mechanical characteristics •Filter structure •filter density gradient •fiber orientation .

3.2. pressure. humidity .2.3 Variable of filtration process •Face velocity (speed of filtered particles in front of filter) •Viscosity of the flow •Temperature.2 Variables of filtered particles •Particle size •Distribution of particle size •Concentration of particles •Shape and surface of particles •Particle density •Electrical properties 3.

3 Filtration mechanisms Air (gas filtration) Liquid filtration Type of filtration •Surface •Depth – more common •Surface – more common •Depth Mechanisms • direct interception • direct interception • inertial impaction • inertial impaction • diffusional deposition • sieve effect • capture by electrostatic forces • sieve effect .3.

Ei  Stk  . inertial impaction R direct interception capture by electrostatic forces charge on the fiber surface Total filtration efficiency E c  E c  E r  N r  . E e  Nq  Ec is total efficiency.1 Filtration mechanisms of depth filtration Mechanisms: fiber diffusional deposition streamlines (air moving trajectory) • direct interception • inertial impaction • diffusional deposition • capture by electrostatic forces . Er is efficiency of direct interception mechanism represented by parameter Nr. E d  Pe  .3.3. . E d is efficiency of diffusional deposition mechanism represented by Peclet number Pe and E e is efficiency of electrostatic mechanism represented by the parameter Nq. Ei is efficiency of inertial impaction represented by Stokes number Stk.

df is fiber diameter) dp fiber Relation between parameter Nr and efficiency of direct interceptiom mechanism: ER  Nr2. which operate in filration velocity about 0. Airborne particles follow the streamline. air viscosity and density.(1-c)) . more exactly:  . This type of mechanism is common for simple respirators made from fibers of about 20 m. because inertial effects and external forces are neglected. 1  N R  where =-0. Parameter of direct interception: streamlines (air moving trajectory) df Nr= dp/df (dp is particle diameter. Particle will be captured when it is close to the fiber.75 is hydrodynamic factor and m = 2/(3.ln(c)-0. This mechanism is independent of air velocity.Direct interception Direct interception occurs when airborne particles behave in an entirely passive way with respect to the airflow.5. Furthermore interception acts along with other filtration processes. Particle must be small. which in steady state are independent of the air velocity. N R2 ER  m the simpliest relation is: ER=NR2/.04 m/sec.

and under such conditions a particle may not be able to follow the airflow.dp.d f where dp is particle diameter. divergence or curvature of streamlines involves acceleration of the air. What particle does depends upon its mass (inertia) and upon the Stokes drag exerted by the air.  is the dynamic viscosity and v is the face velocity of the airflow). dp is the particle diameter. fiber Intensity of the point particle inertia is determined by Stokes number: St  d 2p .U 18.. . if the inertia is infinite then Ei will be 100 %. inertial streamlines (air Efficiency of inertial impaction impaction moving trajectory) Ei depends on the intensity of the point particle inertia.v (where F is the force. Stokes drag is defined as a force which acts on the moving sferical object inside of viscous liquid: F = 3.  is air viscosity and df is fiber diameter.  . If inertia is negligible then Ei will be zero.. .  is particle density. U is air face velocity.Inertial impaction Any convergence.

where  is constant dependent on flow field. where ER is efficiency of direct interception.St.J.  is hydrodynamic factor dependent on packing fraction c and J is constant dependent on c and parameter of direct interception Nr.Relation between the Stokes number and efficiency of inertial impaction: For low Stokes number efficiency is lead by direct interception: Eir=ER+(2. .)-2. For high Stokes number efficiency of inertial impaction is defined: EI=1-(/St).

as a consequence. dp is particle diameter and Cn is the Cunningham correction. A  Q . Thus the real motion of small particles depends on Brownian motion and air flow. so does the intensity of diffusion deposition [Pich J.42) [Brown RC. B. With decreasing particle size the intensity of Brownian motion increases and.1964]. However the air flow effects on the particles motion too. which involve aerodynamic slip flow of B .87. . Q are constants (A=1.d p   particles: 2.T 3. diffusional deposition streamlines (air moving trajectory) fiber Brownian motion is determined by diffusion coefficient D defined by the Einstein equation: D Cn.  2.246. 1993].d p where kB is Boltzmann constant.065 m) and A. . K is Kelvin temperature. Q=0.Diffussional deposition The trajektories of individual small particles do not coincide with the streamlines of the fluid because of Brownian motion.  is air viscosity.k B . . B=0.  Cn  1  .e d p     where  is mean free path of molecules (at NTP it is 0.

5.75 by Kuwabara) [Brown RC. Previous equation was verified by experiments with model filters with the some  and observed functional dependance was the some with little different numerical coefficient: ED = 2.9 .7 . Diffusional capture efficiency: According to Fokker-Planck equation was aproximated relation between the N D (or 1/Pe) and diffusional capture efficiency ED = 2.  -1/3 . 1993]. . Pe-2/3 When we calculate with the slip flow (see chapter 9) the resulting capture efficiency is bigger. U is air flow velocity and Pe is named „Peclet number“.U where df is fiber diameter. Dimensionless coefficient of diffusional deposition ND is defined: ND  1 D  Pe d f . Pe-2/3 where  is hydrodynamic factor ( = -0.Coefficient of diffusional deposition: Capture of particles by a diffusional deposition will depend on the relation between the diffusional motion and the convective motion of the air past the fiber. ln(c)-0.

neutral fiber where D2 is dielectric constant of the fiber and d f is fiber 2. Used equations were derived from Coulomb´s law.Electrostatic forces: Both the particles and the fibers in the filter may carry electric charges. The capture of neutral particles comes about by the action of polarisation forces. streamlines (air moving trajectory) fiber charge on the fiber surface capture by electrostatic forces 1.q F1  x 3 dp 2 D1  1 F2  4. We can define three cases of interaction between particle and fiber. 3 D1  2 x q2 D2  1 F3  . Charged particles. Charged fiber.Q . The capture of oppositely charged particles is given by coulomb forces. Deposition of particles on the fibers may take place because of the forces acting between charges or induced forces. Charged particle. charged fiber where q is the particle charge. [Pich J. . 2 4. x  d f  D2  1 .Q . Q is fiber charge per unit lenght of fiber and x is the distance between fiber and particle. 1964]. 2. 3. neutral particles where D1 is the dielectric constant of the particle and d p is particle diameter.

B 4. D1  2 d 3f .d p . df is fiber diameter. Coefficient of electrostatic mechanism Charged fiber and charged particle Charged fiber and neutral particle Carged paricle and neutral fiber N Qq  4.U 0 .d p . 3.d 2f . .U 0 EQq   . N Qq  EQ 0  3     2  EQq  1 3 .U 0 N Q0 2 2 4 D1  1 d p . .Coefficient of electrostatic mechanism. 1964].Q . N q0 q2 D2  1  . dp is particle diameter and  is viscosity 1 2 .q .U 0 D2  1 Efficiency of electrostatic mechanism 4. .q  d f . efficiency of electrostatic mechanism We can interpret this parameter as a ratio of electrostatic forces to drag forces.Q . 3. From this parameter were derived equations for efficiency [Pich J.q 3. .d f . .U 0 3. U0 is the velocity far form the fiber.Q .d p .Q  .N Q0 1 2  2  ln Re  1 2 3 . N 0q B is mechanical mobility of the particle.d f .

3.2 Filtration variables vs.3.capture efficiency of filtration mechanisms Efficiency of each filtration mechanisms Relations how some filtration variables increase or decrease or not affect the efficiency of each filtration mechanisms filter density fiber diameter particle diameter particle mass face velocity viscosity of air relative charge direct interception -   - - - - inertial impaction   ?    - diffusional deposition    -   - electrostatic deposition -   -    .

df dp2 or 1-1/dp2     1/df2/3    electrostatic deposition - 1/df 2 d e p  1 dp   dp   1/dp or dp2/3 or 1/dp1/2 particle mass  face velocity U viscosity of air  relative charge q. Q - - - -  or 1-k/ U or 1-k/U 1/ - - 1/U2/3 1/2/3 - - 1/U or 1/U1/3 or 1/U1/2 1/ q.Q or Q2/3 or q 3  .Numeric relations between the filter variables and capture efficiency of each mechanisms Efficiency of each filtration mechanisms filter density c direct interception - inertial impaction 1/(ln c) diffusional deposition 1/(ln c)1/3 2 fiber diameter df particle diameter dp 1/df2 dp2 1/df or 1 – k.

2003]: a k  1 c  d pore  d f . .3 Filtration mechanism of flat filtration – „Sieve effect“ Es = 1 for dp  dpore. where Es is efficiency of sieve effect and dpore is pore diameter. a and k are constats related to filter structure (usually a is ½).3. For cylindrical fibers with hexagonal structure is k = 2 -1/2. pore f where q is fiber shape factor (zero for cylindrical fibers). Relation between fiber and pore diameter according to Neckar [Neckar B. . .3. Es= 0 for dp < dpore.. c is packing factor.  () 1 q  c  d d .