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Mohr Circle

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element will be subject to combined normal stresses fx and fy

together with the shearing stress sxy and syx as shown.

fy

syx

sxy

fx

fx

sxy

syx

fy

tensile stress negative for compressive; sxy and syx are positive if

it creates clockwise rotation about the center hence s xy =-syx

1

y

f

sxy

fx

syx

fy

the shearing stress On a plane inclined at an angle

to the x -axis can be obtained by the following

formulas or by Mohrs Circle

fx fy

2

fx fy

2

Cos 2 S xy Sin 2

fx fy

2

Sin 2 S xy Cos 2

of the

angle that will lead to maximum and

minimum

values of f for given set of stress fx,fy and

sxy.

2

These maximum and minimum values

that f

f

f

f

f

x

x

y

y

2

may

f

(

S

)

max are termed principal

xy

assume

stresses

and

2

2

can be

computed by:

f min

fx fy

2

fx fy

2

(

S

)

xy

2

Principal Planes : The angle p between the x -axis and the planes

on which the principal stress occur. The are always two values of

p that will the equation below . The maximum stress occur on one

of these planes and the minimum onthe other. The planes defined

by angle p are known as principal planes. The shearing stress on

these plane are always zero.

tan 2 P

2S xy

fx fy

Maximum and Minimum shearing stress. The maximum and minimum shearing

stress is given by:

S max

fx fy

2

( s xy )

2

minimum shearing stresses occur are determined by the

equation

tan 2

fx fy

2 S xy

MOHRS CIRCLE:

The visual interpretation of the formulas given above can be

interpreted by Mohr circle, without the necessity of memorizing

them

y

fy

syx

fx

sxy

sxy

fx

syx

fy

fx

(fx,sxy)

(fx + fy)/2

R

fmin

sxy

0,0

(fx-fy)/2

fy

f

-syx

fy,-syx

fmax

1. On the rectangular f - s axes , plot points having the coordinates ( f x,sxy)

and ( fy, syx). In plotting these points assume tension as plus and

compression as minus for fx and fy and shearing stress as plus when its

moment about the center of the element is clockwise. Note that s xy=-syx

2. Join the points plotted by a straight line. This line is the diameter whose

center is on the f-axis.

3. the radius of the circle to any point on its circumference represents the

axis directed normal to the plane whose stress components are given by

the coordinates of that point.

4. The angle between the radii to selected points on the Mohrs circle is twice

the angle between the normals to the planes represented by these points.

The rotational sense of this angle corresponds to the rotational sense of the

actual angle between the normals to the planes. ( If the N axis is actually

at a counterclockwise from the x-axis then on the Mohrs circle the radius

is laid off at a counterclockwise angle 2 from the x -radius

7

Problem:

The state of plane stress at a point with respect to the xy axes is as shown

In the figure. Using Mohrs Circle, determine a) the principal stress and

principal planes. b) the maximum in plane shear stress; c) the equivalent

state of stress with respect to the xy axes. Show all results on sketches of

properly oriented elements.

y

y

20 MPa

16 MPa

500

-16 MPa

40 MPa

Solution

Given

f x 40 MPa

f y 20 MPa

x(40,16)

y (20,16)

S yx 16 MPa

S xy 16 MPa

8

40 20

30

2

40 20

10

2

R (10) 2 (16) 2

y

20,16

R 18.87 MPa

16

30,0

f

R

20

16

40,-16

40

9

the shearing stress is zero

30

f min

f max 30 R

f max 30 18.87

f max 48.87 MPa

10

f min 30 R

f min 11.13MPa

16

18.87

2

18.87

20

16

x

40

f max

Principal planes

16

tan 2

10

2 580

290

10

S

2 Pa

3M

11.1

Pa

M

7

48.8

290

30

10

a

y

18.87

2 900 1480

18.87

20

16

x

40

16

To the radius of the circle

f

Angle

1

1 148 740

2

30 M

P

18 .8

7MP

a

30

10

0

74

30 M

P

18.8

7 MP

a

16

18.87

18.87

20

100 0

f

16

x

40

12

RCos 42

RCos 420

30

fy'

f x ' 30 RCos 42 0

f x ' 30 18.87Cos 42 0

f x ' 44 MPa

10

y

X

18.87

S y 'x '

420

18.87

20

100 0

16

x

40

fx '

S x ' y ' 16

f y ' 30 RCos 42 0

f y ' 15.98MPa

f

S x ' y ' 18.87 Sin 420

S x ' y ' 12.63MPa

13

Y P a

8M

1 5 .9

MPa

3

6

12.

MPa

3

6

.

12

Pa

M

4

4

500

14

Problem

A section of a beam is subject to combined tensile stress of 120

MPa and shearing stress of 80 MPa. Determine the maximum,

minimum normal and shearing stress in the section.

Solution

Given

f x 120 MPa

fy 0

x (120,80)

y (0,80)

S xy 80 MPa

S yx 80 MPa

15

15

R (60) 2 (80) 2

R 100MPa

120 0

60

2

f max 60 R

S max

f max 60 100

120,80

R

60,0

80

f

80

f min 60 R

f min 60 100

f min

f min 40 MPa

0,-80

f max

S max R 100 MPa

16

Problem

For the soil element shown in figure, calculate the normal and shear stress

0

40

on plane AB.

300 kPa

40 kPa

B

Given

f x 120 kPa

f y 300 kPa

x(120,40)

y (300,40)

120 kPa

S xy 40 kPa

S yx 40 kPa

17

solution

(120 300)

210

2

R 98.49kPa

tan 2

40

210 120

2 240

angle of plane AB 2 80 o

2 800

180 2 2

1800 240 800 760

(-210,0)

f AB (210 RCos )

f AB 186.17kPa

Shear stress in plane AB

0

S AB R sin S AB 98.49 sin 76

(-120,40)

40

40

S AB

y

(-300,-40)

S AB 95.56kPa

f AB

Problem

For the soil element shown in figure, calculate the maximum and minimum

0

Principal stress and the normal and shear stress on plane CD. 35

y

120 kPa

C

40 kPa

80 kPa

Given

f x 80 kPa

x(80,40)

f y 120 kPa

S xy 40 kPa

y (120,40)

S yx 40 kPa

19

R (20) 2 (40) 2

(120 80)

100

2

R 44.72kPa

40

tan 2

20

2 63.5

f max (100 R)

f max (100 44.72)

(120 80)

20

2

(-120,40)

f min

R

40

(100,0)

40

f max 144.72kPa

(-80,-40)

f min (100 R)

f min (100 44.72)

f min 55.28kPa

f max

100

Angle of plane CD

0

0

(-120,40)

0

f CD (100 RCos )

SCD

40

f CD 69.25kPa

63.50

40

700

SCD RSin

f CD

20

2(35 ) 70 clockwise

0

(-80,-40)

SCD 32.47 kPa

21

21

Problems

1. A section of a beam is subject to combined tensile stress of

120 MPa and shearing stress of 80 MPa. Determine the

maximum, minimum normal and shearing stress in the section.

2. At a certain section of a stressed material , the stresses are f x

= 50 MPa

fy = -10 MPa,sxy =-20 MPa. Determine the maximum and

minimum normal stresses.

3. At a certain point on a stressed body, the principal stresses are

fx =80 MPa and fy =-40 MPa. Determine the normal and

shearing stress on the plane whose normal is at +300 with the

x axis.

4. At a certain point on a stressed body, the stresses are f x = 40

MPa,

fy =-5 MPa, and sxy = 30 MPa. What are the principal planes ?

22

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