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# COMBINED AXIAL AND SHEARING STRESS

## In general when a body is subject to combined loadings , every

element will be subject to combined normal stresses fx and fy
together with the shearing stress sxy and syx as shown.
fy

syx
sxy
fx

fx

sxy
syx
fy

## Note: normal stresses fx and fy are considered positive for

tensile stress negative for compressive; sxy and syx are positive if
it creates clockwise rotation about the center hence s xy =-syx
1

y

f
sxy

fx

syx
fy

## If stresses fx,fy,sxy are known the normal stress and

the shearing stress On a plane inclined at an angle
to the x -axis can be obtained by the following
formulas or by Mohrs Circle

fx fy
2

fx fy
2

Cos 2 S xy Sin 2

fx fy
2

Sin 2 S xy Cos 2

## Principal Stresses there are certain values

of the
angle that will lead to maximum and
minimum
values of f for given set of stress fx,fy and
sxy.
2
These maximum and minimum values
that f
f

f
f

f
x
x
y
y
2
may
f

(
S
)
max are termed principal

xy
assume
stresses
and
2
2

can be
computed by:

f min

fx fy
2

fx fy
2

(
S
)

xy
2

Principal Planes : The angle p between the x -axis and the planes
on which the principal stress occur. The are always two values of
p that will the equation below . The maximum stress occur on one
of these planes and the minimum onthe other. The planes defined
by angle p are known as principal planes. The shearing stress on
these plane are always zero.

tan 2 P

2S xy
fx fy

Maximum and Minimum shearing stress. The maximum and minimum shearing
stress is given by:

S max

fx fy
2
( s xy )

2

## The angle between the x-axis on which the maximum and

minimum shearing stresses occur are determined by the
equation

tan 2

fx fy
2 S xy

MOHRS CIRCLE:
The visual interpretation of the formulas given above can be
interpreted by Mohr circle, without the necessity of memorizing
them
y
fy

syx
fx

sxy

sxy
fx

syx
fy

fx
(fx,sxy)

(fx + fy)/2
R

fmin

sxy

0,0

(fx-fy)/2

fy

f
-syx

fy,-syx
fmax

## Rules for applying Mohrs Circle

1. On the rectangular f - s axes , plot points having the coordinates ( f x,sxy)
and ( fy, syx). In plotting these points assume tension as plus and
compression as minus for fx and fy and shearing stress as plus when its
moment about the center of the element is clockwise. Note that s xy=-syx
2. Join the points plotted by a straight line. This line is the diameter whose
center is on the f-axis.

3. the radius of the circle to any point on its circumference represents the
axis directed normal to the plane whose stress components are given by
the coordinates of that point.
4. The angle between the radii to selected points on the Mohrs circle is twice
the angle between the normals to the planes represented by these points.
The rotational sense of this angle corresponds to the rotational sense of the
actual angle between the normals to the planes. ( If the N axis is actually
at a counterclockwise from the x-axis then on the Mohrs circle the radius
is laid off at a counterclockwise angle 2 from the x -radius
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Problem:
The state of plane stress at a point with respect to the xy axes is as shown
In the figure. Using Mohrs Circle, determine a) the principal stress and
principal planes. b) the maximum in plane shear stress; c) the equivalent
state of stress with respect to the xy axes. Show all results on sketches of
properly oriented elements.
y

y
20 MPa

16 MPa

500

-16 MPa
40 MPa

Solution

Given
f x 40 MPa

f y 20 MPa

x(40,16)

y (20,16)

S yx 16 MPa

S xy 16 MPa
8

40 20
30
2

40 20
10
2

R (10) 2 (16) 2

y
20,16

R 18.87 MPa

16

30,0

f
R

20

16
40,-16

40
9

## Principal stresses: Located on the Mohr Circle where

the shearing stress is zero

30

f min

f max 30 R
f max 30 18.87
f max 48.87 MPa

10

f min 30 R

f min 11.13MPa

16

18.87

2
18.87

20

16
x

40

f max

Principal planes

16
tan 2
10

2 580
290
10

S

2 Pa
3M
11.1
Pa
M
7
48.8

290
30

10

a
y

18.87

2 900 1480

18.87

20

16
x

40

16

## Maximum in plane shear stress: equal

To the radius of the circle
f

Angle

1
1 148 740
2

30 M
P

18 .8
7MP
a

30

10

0
74

30 M
P

18.8
7 MP
a

16

18.87

18.87

20

100 0

f

16
x

40

12

## 100 2 100 58 420

RCos 42

RCos 420
30

fy'

f x ' 30 RCos 42 0

f x ' 30 18.87Cos 42 0
f x ' 44 MPa

10

y
X
18.87

S y 'x '

420
18.87

20

100 0

16
x

40

fx '

S x ' y ' 16

f y ' 30 RCos 42 0
f y ' 15.98MPa
f

## S x ' y ' RSin 42 0

S x ' y ' 18.87 Sin 420
S x ' y ' 12.63MPa

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## Sketch for state of stress in the xy axes

Y P a
8M
1 5 .9
MPa
3
6
12.

MPa
3
6
.
12
Pa
M
4
4

500

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Problem
A section of a beam is subject to combined tensile stress of 120
MPa and shearing stress of 80 MPa. Determine the maximum,
minimum normal and shearing stress in the section.

Solution

Given
f x 120 MPa

fy 0

x (120,80)

y (0,80)

S xy 80 MPa

S yx 80 MPa
15

15

R (60) 2 (80) 2
R 100MPa

120 0
60
2

f max 60 R

S max

f max 60 100

120,80

R
60,0

80

f
80

f min 60 R
f min 60 100

f min

f min 40 MPa
0,-80

f max

## Maximum shearing stress

S max R 100 MPa
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Problem
For the soil element shown in figure, calculate the normal and shear stress
0

40
on plane AB.

300 kPa

40 kPa
B

Given
f x 120 kPa

f y 300 kPa

x(120,40)

y (300,40)

120 kPa

S xy 40 kPa

S yx 40 kPa
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solution

(120 300)
210
2

## R (210 120) 2 (40) 2

R 98.49kPa

tan 2

40
210 120

2 240

angle of plane AB 2 80 o

2 800

180 2 2
1800 240 800 760

(-210,0)

f AB (210 RCos )

## f AB (210 98.49Cos 760 )

f AB 186.17kPa
Shear stress in plane AB
0
S AB R sin S AB 98.49 sin 76

(-120,40)

40

40

S AB

y
(-300,-40)

S AB 95.56kPa

f AB

Problem
For the soil element shown in figure, calculate the maximum and minimum
0
Principal stress and the normal and shear stress on plane CD. 35

y
120 kPa
C

40 kPa
80 kPa

Given
f x 80 kPa

x(80,40)

f y 120 kPa

S xy 40 kPa

y (120,40)

S yx 40 kPa
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R (20) 2 (40) 2

(120 80)
100
2

R 44.72kPa

40
tan 2
20

2 63.5

## Maximum Principal stress

f max (100 R)
f max (100 44.72)

(120 80)
20
2

(-120,40)

f min

R
40
(100,0)

40

f max 144.72kPa
(-80,-40)

## Minimum Principal stress

f min (100 R)
f min (100 44.72)
f min 55.28kPa

f max

100

Angle of plane CD
0

0

(-120,40)

0

f CD (100 RCos )

SCD

40

f CD 69.25kPa

63.50

40

700

## Shear stress in plane CD

SCD RSin

f CD

20

2(35 ) 70 clockwise
0

(-80,-40)

## SCD 44.72 Sin 46.50

SCD 32.47 kPa

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Problems
1. A section of a beam is subject to combined tensile stress of
120 MPa and shearing stress of 80 MPa. Determine the
maximum, minimum normal and shearing stress in the section.
2. At a certain section of a stressed material , the stresses are f x
= 50 MPa
fy = -10 MPa,sxy =-20 MPa. Determine the maximum and
minimum normal stresses.
3. At a certain point on a stressed body, the principal stresses are
fx =80 MPa and fy =-40 MPa. Determine the normal and
shearing stress on the plane whose normal is at +300 with the
x axis.
4. At a certain point on a stressed body, the stresses are f x = 40
MPa,
fy =-5 MPa, and sxy = 30 MPa. What are the principal planes ?

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