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EXPLOITATION OF

AQUIFERS

tzel Almache Joseph Hernández Carol Pacheco Alexandra
Terán

Purpose of the research Main calculations: Examining the basic parameters that have to be determined and analyzed prior an aquifer exploitation .

09% of total water consumption Highly productive intergranular aquifers and fissure aquifers: Over 20% Blue: Lithological units permeable intergranular porosity Green: Lithological units permeable by cracking Brown: Lithological units virtually no exploitable groundwater .Access to water sources is an increasing need : • Population growth • Polluted superficial water • Global warming: • Pollution • Deforestation • CO2 emissions • Imbalance of ecosystems Ecuador Data: Groundwater abstraction: 0.

OUTPUTS and THROUGHPUTS  Water quality  Water quantity .POPULATION DEMAND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION Feasibility of exploiting an aquifer  Hydrological cycle: INPUTS.

AQUIFER Water bearing geological formation that can store and yield usable amounts of water and are identified by characteristics such as type. yield. and direction of groundwater movement. areal extent. . depth form the land surface. thickness.

AQUIFER FORMATION • Medium for the transmission of groundwater: Saturated formations below the surface • Infiltration and movement • Returning to the surface UNSATURATED ZONE (vadose zone) From water table to ground surface SATURATED ZONE Water-filled pores that are assumed to be at hydrostatic pressure .

a well in this type of aquifer will flow freely without pumping.A: Unconfined aquifer: Water table function as its upper boundary B-C: Confined aquifer: Delimited from above and below by impermeable formations Artesian Aquifer: Water occupies the total amount of pores or voids of the geological formation. TYPES OF AQUIFERS .

GROUNDWATER MOVEMENT The direction and rate of movement are determined by the lithology stratigraphy and structure of geological deposits. represented by hydraulic properties .

It combines fluid pressure and gradient h= Z+P/ ρg Z is the elevation head P is the fluid pressure at the point exerted by the column of water above the point. .GROUNDWATER MOVEMENT Porosity Permeability Hydraulic conductivity Hydraulic head (h) p=Vv/Vt Vv : Volume of the pores of a rock or soil sample Vt : Total volume of both pores and solid material Ability of porous materials to allow fluids to move through it Rate of flow of a fluid through porous material Expressed in meters per day Driving force that moves groundwater.

GROUNDWATER MOVEMENT Transmissivi ty (T) Ability of an aquifer to transmit groundwater T=Kb K is the hydraulic conductivity (m/day).3) Darcy’s Law Q=-KA (dh/dl) Q is the volumetric flow rate. and Vt the total volume. and b is saturated thickness of an aquifer (m). K is the Hydraulic conductivity. Specific yield (Sy) Amount of water that can be available for supply or consumption �� = �g /Vt Vg is the volume if water drained by gravity. and A is the cross-sectional area of flow .05 and 0. For unconfined aquifers (Sy is between 0.

STORAGE OF CONFINED AQUIFERS • Water released Compression of the aquifer and expansion of the water when pumped.01 to 0.AQUIFER STORAGE Volume of water released from storage with respect to water level and surface area of the aquifer STORAGE OF UNCONFINED AQUIFERS • Water released Gravity drainage as the aquifer materials are dewatered during pumping Sum of the specific yield and the specific storage multiplied by the thickness of the aquifer • Storage coefficient 0.30. • Storage coefficient • 1 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-3 .

• • • • • INPUT Lateral subsurface inflowS (QLS) Rainfall recharge (QRR) Recharge from nearby rivers (QRN) Recharge due to irrigation (QIR) Sewage return (QSR). • Irrigation water uses (QIW) WATER WATER BALANCE BALANCE which includes recovering the total inputs and outputs during a period of time. In the example a month of analysis . OUTPUTS • Natural discharges such as springs (QSQ) • Lateral subsurface outflow (QLA) • Evaporation from groundwater table (QEGT) • Groundwater usage through wells: such as domestic and industrial (QDI) water uses One of the most important analyses is water balance.

The well is pumped until the water level inside the object is 40 meters from the background. and the loss in the well are negligible. A well with a radius of 0. Assume that the pump does not affect the pressure head greater and equal to 500 meters radius.  Determine which the pumping flow rate is. EXAMPLE Case: Unconfined Aquifer.5 meters completely penetrates an unconfined aquifer gravel with a hydraulic conductivity K = 30 m/day and a height H = 50 meters. .

A well fully penetrates a 25 m thick confined aquifer. . After a long period of pumping at a constant rate of 0. Determine the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity. respectively.EXAMPLE Case: Confined Aquifer.05 �3/� the drawdowns at distances of 50 and 150 m the well were observed to be 3 and 1.2 m.

Figure 4. 1983) .Determine the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity. Hydraulic Conductivity (Heath.

and to get information about the exploitation flow. Permeability is analyzed for many different reasons such as: letting us know about the water flow inside the aquifer. which let us know about the water flow. Transmissibility depends on the permeability coefficient and the aquifer thickness.CONCLUSION. Aquifers have been and are one of the most important hydric resources to supply the society. . The exploitation of aquifers has turned one of the most important topics in the world with a lot research work.

New York .  Kasenow.). The Handbook of Groundwater Engineering.  Delleur. . and Policy. V. Hydraulics of Groundwater. T. QuitoEcuador. Hoboken . USA: Courier Corporation . (2006). W. Army Corps of Engineers (1999) Engineering and Design: Groundwater Hydrology.  Cech. (2001). Introducción a la hidrogeología del Ecuador. Applied Ground-water Hydrology and Well Hydraulics (Second Edition ed. Second Edition (Second edition ed. Principles of Water Resources: History. (2009 ). (2011).  Bear. Albert J.REFERENCES. Colorado.  USACE. J. US: CRC Press. Genetti. U.S. (2007). New Jersey. Highlands Ranch . M. J. Boca Raton.). US: Water Resources Publication . EM 1110-2-1421  INAMHI. US: John Wiley & Sons. NY. Management. Florida.. Development.