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Chapter 12

Diversity within species and population
genetics
.

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What we will learn at the end of this chapter

Recognize how the concepts of species, gene pool, and population
are related.
•Explain the difference between the biological species concept and the
morphological species concept.
•State why all organisms of a species are not the same.
•Distinguish between gene pool and genetic diversity.
•List three methods used to distinguish species from one another.
Know the factors that can cause differences in genetic diversity of
different populations of the same species.
•Explain how each of the following affects the genetic diversity within
populations: mutation, sexual reproduction, population size, and
migration.
•Describe three processes that could result in different populations of
the same species having different gene combinations.
.

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Learn the processes used to produce specific varieties of
domesticated plants and animals.
•Relate cloning and hybridization to asexual and sexual reproduction.
•Explain how hybrid plants and animals are produced.
•Describe how genetic engineering differs from the development of
intraspecific hybrids and clones.
•Describe the value and potential danger of the practice of monoculture.
Recognize that population genetics principles apply to human
populations.
•Describe why certain diseases are more common in some groups of people
than in others.
•Describe how a lack of understanding about population genetics contributed
to the eugenics movements.
•Discuss the ethics matters in relation to human population genetics

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Why study Population genetics ?

• To map populations genetic profiles
• To identify key genetic markers and help prevent diseases
• To apply this knowledge for solving societal issues –like food, preservation of
plant and animal species
•To be aware of the processes that underlie variation leading to natural selectionwhy populations change over time leading to evolution of species

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Populations vs. .  A population is a group of organisms in the same species in the same geographical area. Inc. Species  A species is all the organisms potentially capable of naturally breeding among themselves and having offspring that could successfully interbreed. Permission required for reproduction or display. 12-5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

New Delhi. . Species –examples-human.murine. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.Arctic  Bacterial population in soil of different places 12-6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.bacterial  Population –eg same Human population in BITS GOA.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .Population Genetics and Gene Pools  Population genetics is the study of the kinds of genes (alleles) within a population. Permission required for reproduction or display. – – – 12-7 Also accounts for the numbers of alleles in a population Predicts and observes how those numbers will change over time This data is used to classify organisms and study evolutionary change.

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. The population may contain more different alleles than any one individual.  12-8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.Population Genetics and Gene Pools  In a population – Each individual has a set of alleles.  – Diploid organisms have 2 alleles at most. . The human population has 3 alleles for blood type.  All of the alleles in a population make up the gene pool.

Permission required for reproduction or display. .Example -blood groups diversity of alleles 12-9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

and Gene Pools 12-10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. . Populations.Genes. Permission required for reproduction or display.

. Permission required for reproduction or display.gray colour  C – brown colour  cwhite colour 12-11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Another example-sub populations of mice 3 alleles  Allele1  C+.

 Allele 2  Tail T-long t.small 12-12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.S –large . s. . Permission required for reproduction or display.short  Allele 3  Size.

Inc.The proportion of alleles differs based on subpopulations  In I all are brown while the other 3 they are mixed  In II none are brown  Allele 2  In Population III all are long tailed while in population IV 50% are short tailed  Allele 3-population III 50% are small while in I and II all are large 12-13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. .

heat sensitivity of enzymes  Human race -skin colour differences in populations –example of what kind of inheritance?? Polygenic Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Analogous examples  Dark 12-14 and light moths allele frequency  Difference in types of bacteria found in extreme conditions and tropics-what could be difference?  In cell walls . Permission required for reproduction or display. .

Permission required for reproduction or display. species is a group of organisms – – That share a common gene pool That are reproductively isolated from other populations  They do not exchange genetic information. 12-15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .Biological Species Concept  According to the biological species concept.  Local populations of a single species may have slightly different allele combinations.

Permission required for reproduction or display.Gene and Allele Frequencies  Differences in gene frequencies reflect genetic differences between populations.  Allele frequency is a measure of how often an allele is found in a population. Inc. – – 12-16 Expressed as a decimal or percentage # of times an allele appears in a population/the total number of alleles in the population Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

Allele Frequencies Differ in the Human Population 12-17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .

Blue eyes and light hair are recessive traits that are more frequent in European regions. There are many instances where a recessive allele is more frequent in a population. Dominance. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .Allele Frequencies. and Recessiveness    12-18 Allele frequencies are unrelated to whether the allele is dominant or recessive.

Note that each is identical. and galactose for B. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. B. except that types A and B have an additional sugar: N-acetylgalactosamine for A. Figure 1 shows the arrangement of sugars that determines each of the A.Example of ABO  What    12-19 Determines Blood Type? ABO blood types are determined by a cell surface marker that identifies the cell as belonging to "self" or to that individual. . Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. and O blood types. These cell surface markers are characterized by a protein or lipid that has an extension of a particular arrangement of sugars.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .Blood group types 12-20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc." Blood type O produces antibodies A and B. Permission required for reproduction or display. . produces no antibodies because both antigens present on the cells are recognized as "self. however. Blood type AB. and those with blood type B produce antibody A when exposed to antigen A. People with blood type A produce antibody B when exposed to antigen B.Relevance      12-21 These sugar arrangements are part of an antigen capable of stimulating an immune response that produces antibodies to identify and destroy foreign antigens. because neither antigen A nor B is present on the cells of type O individuals Though the O allele is recessive it is high in terms of frequency Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Type O is particularly high in frequency among the indigenous populations of Central and South America. where it approaches 100%. About 63% of humans share it. It also is relatively high among Australian Aborigines and in Western Europe (especially in populations with Celtic ancestors). Inc.Table of frequency of O allele    12-22 The O blood type (usually resulting from the absence of both A and B alleles) is very common around the world. Permission required for reproduction or display. . The lowest frequency of O is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. where B is common Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

.O Allele prevalence in the world 12-23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.

Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.Implications  The ancestor O allele lacked the gene for the enzyme but A and B developed late in the course of evolution to confer an advantage over the earlier allele-studies are ongoing to prove this-or 0 allele could be a mutant of early human populations whose numbers were small  12-24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Advantages of O allele     12-25 The O allele can provide a selective advantage since it also produces both anti-A and anti-B antibodies In particular. Permission required for reproduction or display. At the same time. it has been suggested that the O allele protects against severe malaria . it can be more sensitive to Helicobacter pylori infections and to severe forms of cholera The complex pattern of putative selective agents favouring or acting against different alleles could explain the maintenance of the high ABO polymorphism as evidenced by the signal of balancing selection detected on the gene Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .

. Javier Fortea2. 8:342 12-26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.Research  Genetic characterization of the ABO blood group in Neandertals  Carles Lalueza-Fox1*. Marco de la Rasilla2. Inc. Antonio Rosas3. Jaume Bertranpetit1 and Johannes Krause4  PAPER:BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008. Permission required for reproduction or display. Elena Gigli1.

Results  This study tried to analyse samples of a Neathanderal man to confirm which blood group alleles were dominant and a O group allele was found in the same. Inc. . 12-27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Subspecies. and Races  These all describe different forms of organisms that are all members of the same species. Varieties. Inc. . Humans have different races.  All 12-28 of these are types of subspecies. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Strains. Bacteria have different strains. Plants have different varieties. – – – – Dogs have different breeds. Permission required for reproduction or display. Breeds.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Subspecies of American Robins (a) Turdus migratorius migratorius 12-29 (b) Turdus migratorius confirmis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

– –  12-30 High genetic diversity implies that many different alleles exist in a population. Low genetic diversity implies that all of the individuals in the population have the same alleles. A gene pool with greater diversity is likely to contain combinations of alleles that will allow the individuals to adapt to a changing environment. . Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.How Genetic Diversity Comes About  Genetic diversity describes genetic differences among members of a population. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Most mutations are harmful.  Example: Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes  O allele formation 12-31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.1 Mutations  Mutations are changes in the base sequence of DNA. Occasionally a mutation will change a gene so that the protein works differently or better.  Mutations are the source of new alleles. Permission required for reproduction or display. – – – All alleles originated with mutations. .

Permission required for reproduction or display.2 Sexual Reproduction  Sexual reproduction generates new genetic combinations. . Inc. –  May not necessarily change the frequency of alleles in a population –  12-32 New combinations of alleles in individuals However. the new combination of alleles in an individual may create a combination of traits that allows the individual to survive and reproduce more successfully than other individuals. Example: Corn plants that inherit resistance to corn blight and resistance to insects Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc. Another example related to wheat – doubling of chromosomes –lead to taller wheat –  A “genetic accident of nature” that lead to better crops  Today with genetic engineering we are triggering the changes 12-33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

php 12-34 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.net/WheatBP/Document s/DOC_Evolution.Source  http://www.wheatbp. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.

. Zoos are exchanging animals for breeding to introduce new alleles into their populations. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. – – –  Artificial migration is used in zoos to generate genetic diversity. Inc. – – 12-35 Results in alleles being added or subtracted from a population May change allele frequencies in the population Examples: Inbreeding has reduced genetic diversity in small zoo populations.3 Migration  The migration is the movement of individuals into and out of populations.

California condors. Permission required for reproduction or display. Example ferret.Asiatic Lion  Problems with this approach  Low genetic diversity due to poor mimicry of natural migration patterns 12-36 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.

cms 12-37 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.indiatimes. .com/environ ment/flora-fauna/100-lion-cubs-raise-girscute-quotient/articleshow/23842796. Link http://economictimes. Inc.

the world's only remaining home of wild Asiatic lions. Inc. in the long-term interests of the lions' survival.Preservation of Asiatic Lion    12-38 Gir. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. sees about 80 to 85 new cubs every year In 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) had removed Gir lions from the critically endangered list and put them in the comparatively healthier endangered list The Supreme Court has ordered Gujarat — much against its wishes — to part with a few of its lions for their relocation to Kuno-Palpur sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh. .

random events will significantly change the gene pool. Inc.4 The Importance of Population Size  Population diversity. – This is called genetic drift. the less genetic diversity a population can contain. . Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Frequently. migrations. and death can have dramatic effects on the genetic make-up of a population. – 12-39 size is directly related to genetic The smaller the population. Mutations. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. 12-40 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . As a result. the frequencies of the genes change in the gene pool. their genes were not passed on to the next generation. Permission required for reproduction or display.Example of Genetic Drift Notice that in the original population. the red frogs were eliminated and failed to breed. Therefore.

 This occurs for several reasons.Why Genetically Distinct Populations Exist  Many species have wide geographic distribution with reasonable distinct subspecies. 12-41 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.

Inc.  Death and migration remove or reduce the alleles that do not contribute to survival. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. – 12-42 Example: Lizards in the desert have lighter coloration than those that live in other environments. – Some individuals will have combinations of alleles that allow them to survive and successfully reproduce in hostile conditions. Permission required for reproduction or display.1Adaptation to Local Environmental Conditions  Genetic diversity allows populations to adapt to their specific environments. .

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When the colonizing individuals mate and multiply. Inc. making the new population different from the parent population. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 Founder Effect  The founder effect is a type of genetic drift that occurs when a new population is established by a few colonizing individuals. Permission required for reproduction or display. – – 12-44 The small colonizing group may have different allele frequencies than the original population. . their allele frequencies will tend to persist.

limiting their genetic diversity. Many endangered species are undergoing genetic bottlenecks. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 Genetic Bottleneck   Genetic bottleneck is another form of genetic drift. Occurs when there is a dramatic reduction in population size – –   12-45 Usually due to some chance event like a natural disaster examples eruption of Mt Vesuvius.end of Dinosaurs Could be due to over-hunting by humans The remaining members of the population will mate and pass on their alleles. .

. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.4 Barriers to Movement  When migration is limited. – – 12-46 Perpetuates the effects of genetic drift caused by founder effect and bottleneck Limits genetic diversity and generates subspecies Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. populations become geographically and reproductively isolated.