You are on page 1of 81

CARBONATE GEOMETRY

Controls on:
• CARBONATE
ACCUMULATION
– Eustacy
– Subsidence
– Carbonate productivity





Temperature
Light
Oxygenation
Clastic input
Predation/disease
Nutrient supply

• CLASTIC
ACCUMULATION
– Eustacy
– Subsidence
– Sediment supply

CARBONATE SEDIMENTATION
Control on Carbonate Sedimentation
Carbonate Sedimentation:
1. Occur in the world ocean
2. Greatest accumulation :

Warm Shallow water
Between 30 degree North and South of the equator

The main control on carbonate production:
1. Temperature
2. Salinity
3. Light Intensity

Carbonate sediments :
Insitu production
– Organic growth
– Chemical precipitation

Redistributed material in short distance
Carbonate system:
 Provide their own sources
 Carbonate depositional model ≠ Clastic
dep. model

sea-level – Healthy carbonate production can usually keep pace with sea-level rise. ... – Drowning unconformities independent of sea-level. – Shelf carbonates are largely autochtonous and . Lowstand carbonate fans minor. or close to. – Are produce and accumulate at. – Limited basinal deposition during lowstand. – Most carbonate is shed to the basin during highstand.MAIN DIFFERENCES WITH CLASTIC SYSTEMS: – Environmental change strongly influences carbonate accumulation. as well as sea-level change.

The Carbonate Factory SHELF CARBONATE DEPOSITS ARE PRODUCED AT OR CLOSE TO SEALEVEL .

other elevation Characters: 1. High turbulence 2. Low turbidity 3. break 2.Carbonate Factory Located at: 1. Water depth relatively shallow . slope 3.

.

The Carbonate Factory • ORGANIC PRODUCTIVITY – – – – Reef communities Shells Algae Most lime mud • INORGANIC PRODUCTIVITY – – – – Ooids Aggregates Cements Some lime mud • IN GENERAL ORGANIC  INORGANIC PRODUCTIVITY • SHELF CARBONATES PRODUCTION & PELAGIC CARBONATE PRODUCTION ARE LARGELY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE .

The Carbonate Factory CARBONATES SEDIMENTS ARE PRODUCED IN OR CLOSE TO THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY ARE DEPOSITED The key is difference to clastic. whose source may be a long distance from the area of deposition .

Cements .Agragates. 2. 1. 3.Ooids. Organic. 5. Corals Shells Algae Forams Most lime mud 2. 1. 3. 2.Carbonate Production 1. 4. Inorganic .

Calsite 2. Aragonite  Limestone 3. Dolomite  Dolostone .Carbonate Composition 1.

Allochem grain Mud micrite Cement Terregenous grains .Carbonate Rocks Ingredients 1. 2. 3. 4.

Intraclast 2.Carbonate Rocks Ingredients Allochem Carbonate grains undergone transportation 1. Pellets (peloids) 3. Ooids 4. Skeletals fragments (bioclast) .

Carbonate Rocks Ingredients Intraclast Sediments agregat eroded from ajacent sea floor Invertebrate indiscretion – Gastropod – Crustaceans Ooids Nucleous carbonate or non carbonate .

Generated on shallow tropical shelves 2.Carbonate Rocks Ingredients Skeletals fragments (bioclast)  Wide variety of grain of difference organism Lime Mud 1. Biogenic degradation .

Clean calcite xtals 2.Carbonate Rocks Ingredients Sparite (sparry calcite) cement 1. Pore filling cement between grain . Larger than micrite 3.

.

Start Up 2. Keep Up The Keep Up Phase:  Expansion of Carbonate Factory Lateral Accretion  Prograding .The cycle of Carbonate growth 1. Catch Up 3.

.

.

Carbonate Depositional Systems • The platform margin and slope • Ramps • Rimmed shelves • Escrapment margins • Detached platform Attached platforms .

• Margin and slope are influenced/controlled by: – Sediment type – Tectonic setting – Windward / leeward setting – Storm / tide domination . • Overall growth potential pf platform is determined by growth and export potential of margin.The Platform Margin • Most important element of platform. • Site of maximum carbonate production.

.

.

Control on Carbonate Sedimentation and Sequence Stratigraphy • Sea level changes • Environmental changes • Differences with siliciclastic • System Track .

8mm/1000 yr  If sea rise > 8mm/1000yr the platforms “drowned” . Geological time scale  Carbonate Platforms grow rapidly  Capable of maintaining pace with rate of sea level rise  Max sea level rise/carbonate acc.Carbonate Accumulation rates.

Climate 3. Lower rate in deeper water . Trangression  lag of time 2.Carbonate Accumulation rates. Drowning can be occurs also  Sea level rise < 8mm/1000 yr  Enviromental factors suppres the rate of carbonate production Potential causes: 1.

.

.

.

.

.

evolved principally by Vail and Exxon workers in clastic systems. incorporating our understanding of controls independent of sea-level . • Carbonate sequence stratigraphy is even more recent. Beware! • We have tried to adopt more pragmatic approach. • Several publications on carbonate sequence stratigraphy have tended to “shoe-horn” carbonates into the clastic model.Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy • Sequence stratigraphy is a relatively new science.

shelf break.Initiation “Start-Up” • • • • Favourable environmental factors Initiated or eleveted area.MAY BE LST (Relative sealevel fall) .EARLY TST (Rapid relative sealevel rise) . etc Early “opportunistic” colonization Lag time between marine flooding and vigourous production (usually a few thousand years) INITIATION  REPRESENTS MARINE FLOODING AND IMPINGEMENT OF PHOTIC ZONE ON AN ANTECEDENT SURFACE .

• PROGRADATION  lateral building of carbonates as a consequence of over production with reduced rate of creation of accomodation space. Carbonate production keeps pace with the rate of creation of accomodation space. .Development • AGGRADATION  vertical up-building of carbonates keeping pace with relative rising sealevel.

Development CARBONATE PRODUCTION CAN USUALLY KEEP PACE WITH SEA-LEVEL RISE • “CATCH-UP” Platform growth achieves equilibrium with rising sea-level. . or overproduces. • “KEEP-UP” Plalform maintains equilibrium with sea-level in vertical sense.

AGGRADATION  RISING RELATIVE SEA-LEVEL . there are limits to what we can predict from seismic alone on the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the buildups.Development • AGGRADATION In purely aggrading system. especially in isolated buildups.TST .

Development • PROGRADATION Main opportunity for carbonates to shed material to the basin. PROGRADATION  SEA-LEVEL HIGHSTAND .HST MAXIMUM FLOODING SURFACE (MFS) WHERE PROGRADING HST DOWNLAPS TST .

whereby overproduced carbonate is shed to the basin. including carbonate fans.Development • PROGRADATION “Highstand shedding” an important concept in carbonates. MOST CARBONATE IS SHED FROM OVERPRODUCING PLATFORMS TO THE BASIN DURING HIGHSTAND .

Demise • Partial (“Backstepping”. “Downstepping”) • Total Caused by • Drowning • Exposure .

but it may be caused by some or all the factors controlling carbonate sedimentation .Demise • DROWNING Partial drowning is termed: – “Backstepping” – Retrogradation” It may be function of rapid relative sea-level rise.TST or INDEPENDENT OF SEA LEVEL CHANGE .

but not necessarily (many examples suggest otherwise) .Demise • DROWNING Total drowning is termed “Submergence”. Again it may be a function of rapid relative sea-level rise.TST or INDEPENDENT OF SEA LEVEL CHANGE . creating the “Drowing Unconformity”.

not necessarily a cause. sea-level rise is an effect. • Presence or absence of exposure is not relevant to definition. . • No HST developed in carbonates afterwards.Demise DROWNING UNCONFORMITIES • Rapid change from carbonates to siliciclastic • Unconformity (sequence boundary) morphology produced due to change in sediment dispersal. • Caused primarily by environmental stressing of carbonate.

Demise • EXPOSURE LOWSTAND DEPOSITION IN BASIN VOLUMETRICALLY SMALL. CARBONATE LOWSTAND FANS UNLIKELY TO BE OF SIGNIFICANCE May result in “Downstepping” of margin Low net sedimentation during lowstand may result in preferential marine cementation of earlier highstand deposits. .

. – ~ 75% of all carbonate reservoirs have very significant early secondary porosity. – Carbonates spend up to 90% of their life exposed.Demise • KARSTIFICATION – A major porosity-creative process due to freshwater leaching. but highly climatedependent.

Demise • UNCONFORMITY OR DROWNING UNCONFORMITY? Differentiation between the two is clearly difficult from seismic alone. UNCONFORMITY – – – – “Stringers” Downstepping” Erosion of margin Karst effects on seismic . but the implications for reservoir quality are significant.

.

Environment Reflected in gepmetries as seen in seismic profile . Rate of sea level Change  Carb.CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRAT. Sea Level Changes and Carbonate Growth. Prod rate Platform accrete lateral  prograde Platform accrete vertical  retrograde Final shape control by : Growth potential characters Various dep.

. Prod. PFG > SLR Lateral accretion Flat-topped Change of PF margin geometry may caused by Increasing/ decreasing depth of the basin Change in rates or loci of Carb. Due to natural catastrophies.CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRAT. Windwardness or Leewardness.

Prod. Due to natural catastrophies.  Windwardness or Leewardness.CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRAT. SLR > PFG PF drowning Backstepping of PF margin  Growth of “Pinacle reef” on drowned ramp  Reef rim catch up the SLR Change of PF margin geometry may caused by  Increasing/decreasing depth of the basin  Change in rates or loci of Carb. .

CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRAT. PFG = SLR PFG sufficient to maintain PF surface exporting sediments basinward If insufficient carbonate production Flat-top with escarpment margin Deep tectonic escarpment Windward effect  sediment exported to the shelf .

Falling Relative Sea Level Carbonate accrete lateral Still stand  step down depositional slope. .CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRAT.

Carbonate sequence Stratigraphic Models • Based on our understanding of such controls on carbonate sedimentation: – SEA LEVEL – ENVIRONMENTAL – GEOMETRICAL .

Transgressive Systems Tract .

• Transgression may rework earlier deposits into extensive. S Potential • Top of TST is maximum flooding surface (MFS). but thin grainstone sheets. • Onlap point migrates landward. • Base of TST is transgressive surface (TS). • Downlap point migrates landward. • Basin may become highly sediment-starved.Transgressive System Tract Carbonate Ramp • Retrogradational parasequence sets (ramps are generally lower productivity systems). Note that even if the underlying LST is clastic. it will fall within the same sequence as carbonate TST. .

Highstand Systems Tract .

Lowstand Systems Tract .

but limited seal potential. C Potential • Exposed ramp characterized by sabkha/desert lake evaporites. (Arid. Unrestricted Basin) • New ramp may nucleate at new sea level position in place of sub aqueous evaporite wedge. carbonate sediment produced or deposited. • Sub aqueous evaporite wedge may onlap distal ramp. • Proximal ramp may be encroached by eolian sand sheets and dunes.Lowstand System Tract Carbonate Ramp (Arid. . or very limited. Restricted Basin) • No.

Drowning/Submergence .

C Potential • Clastics may parallel low-angle ramp progrades. . but may not be easily identified owing to absence of angular contrast.Drowning/Submergence Carbonate Ramp • Not unique to any system tract. • Clastics may onlap ramp. • Drowning unconformity possibly on top of ramp.

Transgressive Systems Tract .

it will fall within the same sequence as carbonate TST. S Potential • Top of TST is maximum flooding surface (MFS). Onlap point migrates landward. Basin may become highly sediment-starved. Note that even if the underlying LST is clastic. . • Base of TST is transgressive surface (TS). Downlap point migrates landward.Transgressive System Tract Carbonate Rimmed Shelf/Escarpment Margin • • • • Retrogradational parasequence sets.

Highstand Systems Tract .

• Topsets may not be developed/resolvable during late highstand. • Downlap point migrates seaward. R • Potential Most extensive development of rim margin and slope reservoir facies. • Highstand shedding of carbonate turbidites into basin. R Potential • Top of HST is sequence boundary (SB). . • Onlap point migrates landward during early highstand/aggradation. • Base of HST is maximum flooding surface (MFS) and may be condensed distally.Highstand System Tract Carbonate Rimmed Shelf/Escarpment Margin • Aggradational/progradational parasequence sets.

Lowstand Systems Tract .

Unrestricted Basin) • Low volumes of carbonate sediment produced (geometrical control). • Potentially major karstification and secondary porosity development across exposed carbonate shelf (dependent on climate.Lowstand System Tract Carbonate Rimmed Shelf/Escarpment Margin (Humid. R Potential . extent and duration of sea level fall). R Potential Enhancement of HST reservoir quality • Siliciclastic valley incision (Probably rare) • Onlapping siliciclastic slope fans. • Volumetrically minor fringing reefs/shoals and eroded carbonate debris.

Drowing/Submergence .

C Potential • Clastics may onlap seaward margin. mimicking LST wedge geometry. • Clastics may prograde onto platform margin and downlap onto margin and top. complete drowning. • Buildup may backstep prior to. . • Backstepping buildup forms part of overall “drowning succession”. or instead of. • Clastics more gently dipping than carbonates.Drowning/Submergence Detached Platform • Not unique to any systems-tract (environmental control). • Drowning unconformity may be developed on top of carbonate.

Transgressive Systems Tract .

with reworked alastics at base. the trangressive surface (TS). • Downlap points migrate towards centre of platform.Transgressive Systems Tract Detached Platform • Retrogradational/aggradational parasequence sets. S Potential Inter-buildup source potential • Top of TST is the maximum flooding surface (MFS). • Base of TST is a bilaterally downlapped surface. . • Basin may become sediment starved. cleaning up into purer carbonate. • Earliest TST may be clastic-rich.

Highstand Systems Tract

Highstand Systems Tract Detached Platform
• Aggradational/progradational parasequence sets.
• Downlap points migrate seaward.
• Topsets may not be developed/resolvable during late
highstand.
• Highstand shedding of carbonate turbidites into basin.
R Potential
• Most extensive development of rim margin and slope
reservoir facies.
R Potential
• Top of HST is the sequence boundary (SB).
• Base of HST is maximum flooding surface (MFS), this
may be condensed distally.

Lowstand Systems Tract

Lowstand Systems Tract Detached Platform
• Low volume of carbonate sediment produced
(geometrical control).
• Volumetrically minor fringing/shoals and eroded
carbonate debris.
• Potentially major karstification and secondary porosity
development on exposed platform (dependent on climate
and extent and duration of sea-level fall).
R Potential
Enhancement of HST reservoir
quality
• No (or minor) clastic input – “purest” carbonate system.

Drowning/Submergence .

• Clastics more gently dipping than carbonates. • Clastic may prograde over and downlap platform top. • Drowning unconformity developed on top of carbonate. C Potential • Clastics may onlap seaward flank.Drowning/Submergence Carbonate Rimmed Shelf/Escrapment Margin • Not unique to any systems-tract (envirom\nmental control). . mimicking LST wedge geometry.

Drowning surface SB-2 TST2 LST HST LST TST-1 SB-1 Versi pre-integrasi .

SUKOWATI-2 SB based on core and log SUKOWATI-1 SB based on cuttings and log .

SB-3 SB-2 TST .HST-2 HST-1 LST TST-1 SB-1 Versi post-integrasi Iline 6377 .

6 929 ´ ) MD Possible Top of Tuban @ 7040 ´ MD GOC 6128´TVD (-6040´ SSTVD ) (6865´ .N12 6470 ´MD : wackestone >> (670 2´ .) (6832´MD : siltstone with quartz without identification of limestone (or wckst) (Upper Tuban Fm. some is intraskeletal. DST #2 (7313´ .14 . 7400´ MD : inner sublithoral Early Miocene (Not Younger Than Upper Te) Based on RFT : GOC 6128´ TVD OWC 6618´ TVD OIL IN THE CARBONATE RESERVOIR TOP OF CARBONATE RESERVOIR Perm : 9.3´ MD : mottled.6530 ´) MD: N12 .7610´ MD) Flowed 286 BWPD (11. 40% CO2 and 1.N10/N9 probably upper bathyal (Middle Miocene) GAS IN THE CARBONATE RESERVOIR 6530 ´MD ?Older Than N9 (? Early Miocene) 6550 ´MD 5946´MD (5946´ .6952 ´ ) MD Φ moldic (6370 ´ .7278´ MD) Flowed 1857 BOPD. Core Lab.) DST #3 (7234´ .08 MMCFGPD.13% . (6706´ . 1362 MMCFGD 242 BWPD (32000 PPMCL¯).6049) OWC : 7426 ´ MD / 6612´ TVD (.649 0´ ) MD 6360´MD: N8. 34% CO2 and 1. through a 24/64” chocke. 24% CO2 and 2% H2S at 542 PSI WHP through a 1” choke. 2002) 6370 ´MD : quartzwacke 6380´ MD : wckst/pkst.7341´ MD) Flowed 2053 BOPD. Middle Miocene 6704´MD : inner nerit ic (6796´ .000 PPMCL¯). 36%Co2 and 2% H2S at 1140 PSI WHP. 40% Co2 and 2% H2S at 110 PSI WHP.?N9 6720´MD : coal (6 58 0´ . upper bathyal zone (PT. 6948´MD Estimated OWC (7540´ MD) DST #1 (7558´ .6300 ´) MD : N10 .Upper Tuban Fm.6708´ ) MD :N14 upper bathyal (6708 ´ . 127 BWPD (900 PPMCL¯).6524) ? Estimated OWC (7240´ MD) DST #2 (7348´ . 1. 2957 BWPD (8700 PPMCL¯). sec Φ 6390´ MD : wckst/pkst (100%) DST #3 (6854´ .6879.6896´ MD KB) Flowed 2992 BOPD 2.RESERVOIR MODEL BASED ON THE WELL CORRELATION GAS IN THE SILISICLATIC RESERVOIR OIL IN THE SILISICLASTIC RESERVOIR PROBABLE SHALE OUT 6200 ´MD 5700´MD Not Younger Than N12 5750´MD (6200 ´. Possible GOC : 6841´ MD / 6137´ TVD (.2´) MD : mottled.17 Por : 16.6720´) MD : sand with dominant quartz. 3 MMCFGPD. through a 32/64” chocke.).5´ MD : Φ 30%.6790 ´) MD (6580 ´ . most is secondary (dissolved) (6 810 ´ . calcite & foram plankton (Tawun .21. foram plankton & carbonaceous (Ngrayong Fm.6600´ MD KB) Flowed 4705 BOPD (40°API). through a 44/64” choke. through a 44/64” choke.6948 ´) MD : N13 .6550 ´) MD: (6200´. through a 32/64” chocke.8% H2S at 1026 PSI WHP.6620´ ) MD : calcareous quartzwacke Top Carbonate 6790´MD : coal 6821 ´MD : mottled 6837.8% H2S at 146 PSI WHP.42 . oil saturated 6300´MD 6322´MD : N9 DST #1 (6370´ . 7590´MD : inner sublithoral Early Miocene (Not Younger Than Upper Te) (6708´ .6% H2S at 950 PSI WHP.54 MMCFGD. oil saturated UV 6917.6832´) MD : siltstone with dominant quartz. 50% CO2 and 2.7548´ MD KB) Flowed 2300 BWPD (9426 PPMCL¯).