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OMF000401 Case

Study -Handover

Huawei Confidential

Measurement Points of Intra
• Possible causes of intra BSC
 No channel available in the target cell
 Channel activation negative acknowledgement - CHAN

 Transmitting channel activation message failure
 Channel activation timeout
 MS access failure (It may be caused by radio interface.)
 Max resend time of physical information * radio link

connected with the timer < time interval of EST IND ~
HO DETECT (120~180ms)
 Waiting until timeout after establish indication (MS has

not received UA frame or has not sent handover
complete message)

Measurement Points of InterInter BSC handover
BSC Handover
 Success rate
=(Successful incoming inter BSC inter cell handovers +
Successful outgoing inter BSC inter cell handovers) /
(Attempted incoming inter BSC inter cell handovers +
Attempted outgoing inter BSC inter cell handovers )

• Incoming BSC handover
 Success rate
=(Successful incoming inter BSC inter cell handovers) /
(Attempted incoming inter BSC inter cell handovers)

• Outgoing BSC handover
 Success rate


=(Successful outgoing inter BSC inter cell
handovers ) / (Attempted outgoing inter BSC inter cell

Searching Process of Handover
Data (1)

BCCH frequencies of all adjacent cells in BA2 table are sent to
MS on system message 5.

MS reports measurement report to BSS. It including the BCCH ,
BSIC and signal level of the adjacent cells and serving cells.

When the measurement report is preprocessed, BSC determines
the module ID, cell ID and CGI of all adjacent cells through BCCH
frequency and BSIC in Adjacent Cell Relation Table and Cell
Description Table (or External Cell Description Table).

BSC executes handover judgement flow such as basic cell
ranking (on LAPD board). Once a proper target cell is found, the
handover request message which includes the target cell CGI
will be sent to MPU of BSC host, and then MPU will confirm the
module ID of the cell in Cell Module Information Table based on
the CGI.


Searching Process of Handover
Data (2)
• MPU sends handover request message to the module and
makes statistics of "outgoing inter cell handover request".
• If the target cell triggered by BSC is an external cell, the CGI
of the target cell and service cell is sent to MSC on the
handover required.
• By matching the CGI of the target cell, MSC search target
cell in “LAI And GCI Table ”. Once the cell is found, MSC will
confirm which BSC is belong to, and send the handover
request message to this BSC.
• If there is no CGI of the target cell in " LAI And GCI Table ",
MSC will go to “Adjacent MSC Table" and find the target MSC,
then send the handover request message to that MSC.


Analysis of Handover Problem • Types of handover problems • Locating handover problem • Causes of handover problem 6 .

and call drop.  Frequent handover • Affect the conversation quality and increase load of the system 7 .Types of Handover Problems • Types - Possible Results  No handover • Cause call drop  Handover failure • Affect the conversation quality.

Analysis of Handover Problem • Types of handover problems • Locating handover problem • Causes of handover problem 8 .

Abis interface 9 . E interface. clock.Locating Handover Problem • Traffic statistics analysis  Measurement of BSC overall performance  Measurement of inter cell handover performance  Measurement of outgoing/incoming inter cell handover performance  Measurement of performance of undefined adjacent cell • View alarm  Board fault. transmission. • Drive test • Signaling analysis  A interface. etc.

Analysis of Handover Problem • Types of handover problems • Locating handover problem • Causes of handover problem 10 .

Data Configuration • A interface • target cell congestion 11 • Cooperation with equipment of other manufacturers . hardware.Causes of Handover Problem • Coverage and interference at radio interface • Antenna and feeder system • Base station software or hardware • Transmission • BSC software.

Analysis of Handover Problem • Coverage and interference at radio interface  Coverage: • Poor coverage: forest. complicated topography. building direction and indoor coverage • Isolated site: no adjacent cell • Over shooting: island effect result in no adjacent cell  Interference: MS can not access network or receive any signal. 12 .

Non-adjacent Adjacent cell cell N1 Service cell Non-adjacent cell Adjacent Cell N2 Isolated island resulting from over shooting 13 Non-adjacent Adjacent cell Cell N3 .Analysis of Handover Problem Island effect results in handover failure There is no adjacent cell. so handover become impossible.

Analysis of Handover Problem • Antenna & Feeder System  High voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)  Antenna are not properly installed  Antenna are not parallel  The azimuth and downtilt are not correct  Poor antenna isolation value  RF cables. connection are loose or incorrect 14 .

Analysis of Handover Problem • BTS hardware  CDU. splitter/combiner failure  TRX failure  TMU failure  FPU failure  Clock failure  Internal communication cable 15 .

Analysis of Handover Problem • Transmission  Transmission is not stable  Serious BER in transmission • Fault of BSC Hardware  Example: • Clock board: the faulty clock board causes clock inconsistency between base stations. 16 .

 CGI. N value of statistic time  Incomplete frequency and adjacency relation configured in BA1/BA2 table  There are adjacent cells with the same frequency and the same BSIC  CGI and module ID in "Cell Description Table" are different from those in "Cell Module Information Table".)  Improper setting of handover hysteresis and handover priority.  Improper setting of P. the edge handover threshold is higher than the power control threshold. lower. .Analysis of Handover Problem • Data Configuration  Improper setting of handover threshold (higher. BCCH and BSIC in "External Cell Description Table" are 17 different from those in the opposite BSC.

Then the target cell should be expanded or reduce its traffic . as well as abnormal communication. which causes the handover failure.• Analysis of Handover Problem A interface problem  Basically the insufficient link resource results in the abnormal handover. • Handover between equipment of different manufacturers  The signaling at A interface. such . E interface of the 18 opposite equipment are not matching to our equipment and they can not be recognized or support. • Target cell congestion  The target cell is congested. which causes the handover failure.

Course Contents Measurement points of handover Searching process of handover data Analysis of handover problem Handover cases 19 .

Case 1 Typical Handover Cases Fault Description: A 1800 cell of a dual-band network (all the 1800 cells belong to one BSC). 20 . while the outgoing handover success rate of intra-BSC and inter-BSC are normal. the incoming handover success rate of incoming BSC and intra BSC are low from the beginning of the service.

Case 1 Typical Handover Case Analysis: 1. check the hardware carefully. Check step by step and find out the cause. If handover fails from some few cells to this cell. check the handover data and see whether there is co-channel and co-BSIC problem. 21 . If data cause is ruled out. Check the alarm or perform drive test to locate uplink fault or downlink fault. If handover fails from all other cells to this cell. 3. 2. Register the traffic statistics and analyze whether the low handover success rate is due to the failure of handover from all cells to this cell or from some few cells. 4. check the data of this cell.

Perhaps the problem is with the uplink signal.  3. Perform drive test and find that the downlink signal is normal but almost all handovers to this cell are failure. Register the incoming inter cell handover measurement function and find that the successful rate of handover from all other cells to this cell is low.  2. the data of this cell is correct. CDU. the handover is successful occasionally. Base on careful data checking. . everything is normal. antenna. Check the uplink channel.Typical Handover Case •Solution:  1. Near the BTS. although it is not always 0 percent. Change the TRX . they 22 are no problem.

From "Inter -cell Hanover Measurement Function. 23 . After 19th September. it was found that some cells in module 4 under 1800 network are seriously congested (40 % ~ 50 % ). the situation became worse. it was found that beside module 4.Case 2 Typical Handover Cases Fault Description: After LAPD software upgrade of a dualband network on 19th September. some cells of other modules also suffer from the problem that inter cell handover success rate is low. and overall handover indices of BSC come down from 95 % to 90 % .

Analyze traffic statistics and the main causes of the failure to locate the problem. Check whether it is attributed to LAPD software upgrade. 24 . 2.Typical Handover Cases Case 2 Analysis: 1.

Analyze traffic statistics: • Congested cells are mostly at site A and site B. It is a pseudo congestion. not all cells under module 4 are congested and the handover indices of some cells are not low. Check whether it is attributed to LAPD software upgrade. C.  2. 25 . After the upgrade. Their traffics are lower than before the upgrade.• Solution: Typical Handover Cases  1. • The cells where handover success rate is low are mostly at site A. D and E and the main cause of the failure is timer timeout. B. Upgrade isn’t the cause.

Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  3. Such impact is spread to the adjacent cells of these two cells and even to the whole network. Check alarm: • At 19:31 of 18th September. 26 . Analyze handover data and traffic statistics: All cells where handover success rate is low are adjacent to A and B except A and B themselves. It is found that 13M clock isn’t synchronous. The clock problem result in low handover success rate of the two sites. the clock system alarms of site A and site B occurred.  4.

27 . Pay attention to the alarm console and the excursion of the clock system. the clock system is recovered. Reset site A and site B. The problem is solved.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  5. and the handover success rate inter/intra BSC goes up to 93 % . • Conclusion:  The problem in clock system will result in low handover success rate.

MS can not handover from S BSC to Huawei BSC but opposite is normal. 28 .Typical Handover Cases Case 3 Fault Description: Huawei BSC and another manufacturer’s BSC (S vender) are connected to the same MSC. In other words. After cutover. “Attempted incoming interBSC inter cell handover" of Huawei BSC is 0.

Carefully check the outgoing inter-cell handover signaling and handover data at S BSC.Typical Handover Cases Case 3 Analysis: Since incoming BSC handover request times is 0 but the outgoing handover is normal. 29 .

After receiving HO-REQUEST message. Huawei BSC returns HO-FAILURE message immediately. 30 . Trace interface message. Carefully analyze HO-REQ message and HO-FAILURE message.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  1. In normal conditions Huawei BSC should return HO-REQ-ACK message.

Typical Handover Cases • Handover failure 31 .

Typical Handover Cases • HO-REQUEST 32 .

The system thinks that Address Indicator must be 0x43. modify the relation parameter. HO-REQUEST: The difference is basically the Address Indicator in comparison with the normal handover request message. HUAWEI BSC does not recognize case 41. Inform the owner of network. HO-FALUER: The cause of the failure is invalid message content  3. and this problem is solved. 33 .Typical Handover Cases • Solution :  2.

Typical Handover Cases • Conclusion:  In cooperation with equipment of other manufacturers. faults can be located by analyzing the signaling. 34 .

35 .Typical Handover Cases Case 4 Fault Description: Huawei MSC cooperate with MSC of N (vender). but outgoing BSC handover success rate is about 25%. The handover from the N BSC to Huawei BSC is successful. but opposite is failure sometimes. The communication is normal. The Huawei intra BSC handover and incoming BSC handover are normal.

Typical Handover Cases Case 4 Analysis: Check handover data. 36 . BA2 table. including the external cell description table. cell adjacency relation table inside Huawei BSC and N BSC and CGI at N MSC. check outgoing BSC handover signaling. If the data are correct.

7 link and A interface circuit are all normal.  3. It is found that after receiving HONumber. Check alarm: BTS maintenance console. Check data: There is no fault in BSC and MSC of the two venders.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  1. 37 . Trace MAP message at E interface (inter-MSC) with a signaling meter. No. Trace Huawei A interface signaling. After "HO- REQUIRED" message is sent.  4. Huawei MSC never sends IAI (Initial Address Information). "HO-COMD" command is not received from MSC.  2.

no any prefix). asking them to add "00+country code" before the handover number. 38 . Check HO-Number message from the opposite and find that the handover code format is 130********(only a number of mobile telephone. Therefore the signaling is halted. But this mobile company requires that roaming/handover between exchanges should be in the format: 00+country code + roaming/handover number. In addition. Huawei equipment does not recognize the handover number without 00+country code. Then outgoing BSC handover is normal.  6.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  5. Discuss with N.

Typical Handover Cases • Conclusion:  Problems can be located quickly and accurately if you are familiar with the signaling flow of handovers. 39 .

40 . while the handover from M900 to M1800 are normal and the handover data are correct. Huawei 1800 network cooperate with 900 network of vender A . After cutover. the successful rate of handover from M1800 to M900 is low (about 60 % ).Typical Handover Cases Case 5 Fault Description: In the independent MSC networking of a dual band network.

.Typical Handover Cases Analysis 1: Trace the signalings at A interface and E interface. Normal signaling is as follow: MS BSC-HW MSC-HW HO-REQUIRED MSC-B MAP_Prepare_HO VLR-B BSC-B MS MAP_Allocate_HO_NUM MAP_Send_HO_Repor t MAP_Send_HO_Report_AC K HO-REQUEST MAP_Prepare_HO_ACK HO-REQUEST-ACK IAI ACM HO-Command MAP_Process_Access_Signaling Clear-Command MAP_Send_End_Signal Clear-Complete MAP_Send_End_Signal_ACK 41 HO-Access HO-Complete Intermediate steps are omitted.

Typical Handover Cases Analysis 2: Abnormally signaling is as follow: MS BSC-HW MSC-B MSC-HW HO-REQUIRED MAP_Prepare_HO MAP_Abort HO-REJECT 42 VLR-B BSC-B MS .

so the handover fails. Analyze the Prepare-HO message sent from Huawei MSC to the opposite. Then the outgoing BSC handover is normal.  2. 43 . It is a PHASE 2+ version.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  1. Modify A interface circuit pool table of Huawei MSC data. It turns out that the opposite does not support half-rate version. However there is only full-rate version 1 in the message sent from M900 to Huawei M1800.  3. only using full-rate version 1. The voice version is full-rate version 1. 2 and half-rate version 1.

Typical Handover Cases • Conclusion:  There are often many problems in coordination between the equipment of different manufacturers. problems can be located accurately by tracing signaling. 44 . However.

the successful rate of handover from BSC1 to BSC2 is very low. is all configured with Huawei equipment. but opposite is normal. Intra BSC handover of BSC1 and BSC2 are normal.Typical Handover Cases Case 6 Fault Description: A GSM network. where one MSC is attached with two BSC. When the two BSC are cutover. 45 .

 Check the data relate to handover of BSC1 and BSC2.Typical Handover Cases Case 6 • Analysis:  Register “outgoing inter-cell handover measurement function” of BSC1 and “incoming inter-cell handover measurement function” of BSC2.  Analyze signaling of handover failure. 46 .

Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  1. BA2 table.  2. 47 . BSC2 has not received "HO-REQUEST" message. CGI of MSC. The path of data search: MSC goes to "LAI and GCI Table" according to the CGI of the target cell in "HOREQUIRED" message. Check all data of inter-BSC handover: external cell description data table. After BSC1 sends "HO-REQUIRED". and sends HO request to the correct BSC base on the description of the DPC of the cell given in the table. No problem is found. Trace A interface message of BSC1 and BSC2.  3. but opposite is normal.

48 . which should have been sent to BSC2. is sent to BSC1. After correction. the problem is solved.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  4. The HO-REQUEST message. It is DPC error.

Typical Handover Cases • Conclusion:  For the data of inter-BSC handover. 49 . When the DPC is incorrect. check whether the DPC is correct. besides checking whether CGI at MSC side is consistent with that of opposite and BSC. "HO-REQUEST" will be sent to wrong BSC. MSC look up target DPC base on the CGI of the target cell.

attached to MSC of vender S. while outgoing BSC and intra-BSC handovers are normal (above 92 % ). the cells with low successful rate of incoming BSC handover are randomly distributed. Furthermore.Typical Handover Cases Case 7 Fault Description: A dual band network is a mixed networking of Huawei BSC (M1800) and vender N BSC (M900). After the cutover. the successful rate of Huawei incoming BSC handover is always 88 % ~ 92 % . 50 .

Typical Handover Cases Case 7 Analysis: Since the handover success rate is not very low and the low ratio is not in some few cells. 51 . Perhaps it is due to some interference at the radio interface coverage hole. data problem is excluded. Next. trace the signaling.

It is unlikely that the coverage and interference at the radio interface causes the problem. Perform forced handover with a test mobile between several cells where handover success rate is low.  2. call drop and congestion rate are normal.  3.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  1. The interference band of cells is ideal. Trace A interface signaling and compare the failure signaling with success signaling: 52 . Data problem is excluded. The forced handovers are all successful.

Typical Handover Cases • A interface signaling analysis of interBSC handover in MSC: Failure signaling: Success signaling: 53 .

 5. The comparison result is that Huawei BTS has not detected any MS access information (No HO DETECT signaling occurs). otherwise the handover success rate will be very low. In addition. . It shows that there is problem when the MS is accessing M1800 cells. Reconfirm that there is no problem with the handover data.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  4.  6. Re-trace large number of handover signaling to 54 find that all failures are attributed to the same cause. the problem is the same: there are several handover requests in a call duration but all requests fail.

 8. It shows that the MS that have handover problem are of the same model. to find that the first 6 digits of IMEI numbers of these MS are all 449684. so it can not access M1800 network. Not long before it was proved that this MS has poor insulation performance between M900 and M1800. Now the cause is found. 55 . Find the MS owners with the IMSI numbers and find that all MS with handover problem are F MS. Analyze other similarities of the failed message.Typical Handover Cases • Solution:  7.

therefore coordination problem is unlikely. Therefore in a call.  1. Trace the signaling to find the cause of the handover failure: BTS has not received handover access message from MS. . TCH assignment seldom fail. F MS is always 56 under M900 in idle status.  3. problem is very likely to happen.  4. Find the similarity of these MS through large amount of signaling tracing: IMEI numbers are the same. Then it is found that the problem is on F MS.Typical Handover Cases • Conclusion: MS problem will also causes handover failure. In this case the handover success rate is not very low. which will not result in high congestion rate.  2. But in handover. The coverage of M900 is very good.

Thank You 57 .