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QM ZG536

BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Shaibal Kr. Sen
Session 01

BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad


1. Introduction
2. Preparation
3. Components of Experimental Design
4. Purpose of Experimentation
5. Experimental Design Guidelines
6. Experimental Design Process
7. Test of Means – One Factor Experiment
8. Multifactor Experiment
9. Advanced Topic – Taguchi Methods
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. When analyzing a process. and what the target level of those inputs should be to achieve a desired result (output).all of the terms have the same meaning. 1956 . experiments are often used to evaluate which process inputs have a significant impact on the process output. Experiments can be designed in many different ways to collect this information.1. or to illustrate a known effect. Design of Experiments (DOE) is also referred to as Designed Experiments or Experimental Design . BITS Pilani. Introduction The term experiment is defined as the systematic procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect. to test or establish a hypothesis.

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. reducing late engineering design changes. and Regression and Correlation Analysis modules) is required. prior to working with this module. Preparation General knowledge of statistics (Histogram.Experimental design can be used to reduce design costs by speeding up the design process. BITS Pilani. Statistical Process Control. and reducing product material and labor complexity. 2. and the need for inspection. scrap. Designed Experiments are also powerful tools to achieve manufacturing cost savings by minimizing process variation and reducing rework.

or inputs to the process. Note that the ingredients list was shortened for this example . The controllable variables will be referred to throughout the material as factors. 1956 .there could be many other ingredients that have a significant bearing on the end BITS Pilani. Components of Experimental Design Consider the following diagram of a cake-baking process (Figure 1).3. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. In this case. There are three aspects of the process that are analyzed by a designed experiment: Factors. Factors can be classified as either controllable or uncontrollable variables. the controllable factors are the ingredients for the cake and the oven that the cake is baked in.

flavoring. water. etc). BITS Pilani. Levels. Examples include the oven temperature setting and the particular amounts of sugar. there could be other types of factors. but we can control it during the experiment applying certain techniques.result (oil. 1956 . and eggs chosen for uncontrollable factor that causes variability under normal operating conditions. Likewise. or even the people involved. or settings of each factor in the study. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. flour. the sequence of mixing. People are generally considered a Noise Factor . such as the mixing method or tools. Potential factors can be categorized using the Fishbone Chart (Cause & Effect Diagram).

the taste. consistency. important outcomes are measured and analyzed to determine the factors and their settings that will provide the best overall outcome for the critical-to-quality characteristics – both measurable variables and assessable attributes. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. or output of the experiment.Response. Experimenters often desire to avoid optimizing the process for one response at the expense of another. 1956 . and appearance of the cake are measurable outcomes potentially influenced by the factors and their respective levels. BITS Pilani. In the case of cakebaking. For this reason.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Figure 1 BITS Pilani.

4. If it turned out that the flour from different vendors was not significant. The experiment(s) should allow us to make an informed decision that evaluates both quality and cost. including: Comparing Alternatives. 1956 . Purpose of Experimentation Designed experiments have many potential uses in improving processes and products. If flour were significant. In the case of our cake-baking example. then we would select the best flour. BITS Pilani. we might want to compare the results from two different types of flour. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. we could select the lowestcost vendor.

"Can the recipe be changed so it is more likely to always come out the same?" BITS Pilani. 1956 .Identifying the Significant Inputs (Factors) Affecting an Output (Response) . eggs. sugar and baking?” Achieving an Optimal Process Output (Response). Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. and what are the levels of those factors. "What are the necessary factors. to achieve the exact taste and consistency of Mom's chocolate cake? Reducing Variability.separating the vital few from the trivial many. We might ask a question: “What are the significant factors beyond flour.

"How can the cake be made as moist as possible without disintegrating?" Improving process or product "Robustness" . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. or Targeting an Output (Response). "How do you produce the best tasting cake with the simplest recipe (least number of ingredients) and shortest baking time?" BITS for use under varying conditions. "Can the factors and their levels (recipe) be modified so the cake will come out nearly the same no matter what type of oven is used?" Balancing Tradeoffs when there are multiple Critical to Quality Characteristics (CTQCs) that require optimization.Minimizing. Maximizing. 1956 .

5.obtaining the required information in a cost effective and reproducible manner. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 . The structure and layout of experimental runs. or conditions. A well-designed experiment is as simple as possible . BITS Pilani. The levels of those factors. Experiment Design Guidelines The Design of an experiment addresses the questions outlined above by stipulating the following: The factors to be tested.

1956 . reliable experiment results are predicated upon two conditions: a capable measurement system. If the measurement system contributes excessive error.Like Statistical Process Control. BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. you can use the Statistical Process Control module to help you evaluate the statistical stability of the process being evaluated. Variation impacting the response must be limited to common cause random error . the experiment results will be muddied.not special cause variation from specific events. and a stable process. Likewise.

Properly designed experiments can identify and quantify the sources of error. multiple shifts. raw BITS Pilani. such as multiple machines. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. can obscure the results. other sources of error. pay particular heed to four potential traps that can create experimental difficulties: i). These factors. Uncontrollable factors that induce variation under normal operating conditions are referred to as "Noise Factors". Note that the term "error" is not a synonym with "mistakes". In addition to measurement error (explained above). or unexplained variation. ii). 1956 . Error refers to all unexplained variation that is either within an experiment run or between experiment runs and associated with level settings changing.When designing an experiment.

etc. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. humidity.materials. Correlation can often be confused with causation. 1956 . Consider the example of a porcelain enameling operation that makes bathtubs. The manager notices that there are intermittent problems with "orange peel" . Two factors that vary together may be highly correlated without one causing the other . or experiment unacceptable roughness in the enamel surface. can be built into the experiment so that their variation doesn't get lumped into the unexplained.they may both be caused by a third factor. iii). BITS Pilani. The manager also notices that the orange peel is worse on days with a low production rate. A key strength of Designed Experiments is the ability to determine factors and settings that minimize the effects of the uncontrollable factors.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.A plot of orange peel vs. 1956 . production volume below (Figure 2) illustrates the correlation: Figure 2 BITS Pilani.

both low production rates and orange peel are caused by excessive absenteeism . 1956 . This example highlights the importance of factoring in operational knowledge when designing an experiment.If the data are analyzed without knowledge of the operation. In fact. a false conclusion could be reached that low production rates cause orange peel. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. BITS Pilani. The key is to involve the people who live with the process on a daily basis. Brainstorming exercises and Fishbone Cause & Effect Diagrams are both excellent techniques to capture this operational knowledge during the design phase of the experiment.when regular spray booth operators are replaced by employees with less skill.

For example. Likewise. The combined effects or interactions between factors demand careful thought prior to conducting the experiment.iv). there are also interactive effects . additional fertilizer has a beneficial impact up to the point that too much fertilizer burns the roots. but these can only be studied with more complex experiments that involve more than 2 level settings. Increased amounts of water are found to increase growth.too much water can negate the benefits of fertilizer by washing it away. consider an experiment to grow plants with two inputs: water and fertilizer. Compounding this complexity of the main effects. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. Factors may generate non-linear effects that are not additive. but there is a point where additional water leads to root-rot and has a detrimental impact. BITS Pilani.

three levels are defined as quadratic (three points define a curve). Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Two levels is defined as linear (two points define a line). four levels are defined as cubic. Experiment Design Process The flow chart below (Figure 3) illustrates the experiment design process: Figure 3 BITS Pilani. 6. and so on.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Figure 3 BITS Pilani.

Test of Means . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. You may need to collect several sub-groups worth of data in order to make a BITS Pilani. with established control limits.7. Then apply the standard rules to evaluate out-of-control conditions to see if the process has been shifted. One of the most straightforward methods to evaluate a new process method is to plot the results on an SPC (Statistical Process Control) chart that also includes historical data from the baseline process. 1956 . There are several ways to analyze such an experiment depending upon the information available from the population as well as the sample.One Factor Experiment One of the most common types of experiments is the comparison of two process methods. or two methods of treatment.

although a single sub-group could fall outside of the existing control limits. recording ten data points for each alternative.determination.e. Randomization is necessary to BITS Pilani. An alternative to the control chart approach is to use the F-test (F-ratio) to compare the means of alternate treatments. The commuter timed the trip home over a month and a half. This is done automatically by the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) function of statistical software.. 1956 . There were two alternatives to bypass traffic bottlenecks. Take care to make sure your experimental runs are randomized i. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. but we will illustrate the calculation using the following example: A commuter wanted to find a quicker route home from work. run in random order.

then the highway project could bias the results if a given treatment (route) is sampled during that time period. Consider the example of measuring the time to drive home: if a major highway project is started at the end of the sample period increases commute time. then draw the pennies from a container and record the order. X and Y) Scheduling the experimental runs is necessary to ensure independence of observations. You can randomize your runs using pennies . 1956 .avoid the impact of lurking variables (a lurking variable is a characteristic of each 'individual' that is either unrecorded or unused in the analysis. BITS Pilani.write the reference number for each run on a penny with a pencil. relationship between two variables. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. but that distorts the apparent .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. and the variance for each route: BITS Pilani. 1956 .The data are shown below along with the mean for each route (treatment).

both new routes home (B & C) appear to be quicker than the existing route A. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. an ANOVA F-test is performed. To determine whether the difference in treatment means is due to random chance or a statistically significant different process.As shown on the table above. BITS Pilani. 1956 .

the number of runs goes up exponentially as additional factors are added. Multi-Factor Experiments Multi-factor experiments are designed to evaluate multiple factors set at multiple levels. The advantage is that all paired interactions can be studied. 1956 . However. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. One approach is called a Full Factorial experiment. Experiments with many factors can quickly become unwieldy and costly to execute. in which each factor is tested at each level in every possible combination with the other factors and their levels.8. Full factorial experiments that study all paired interactions can be economic and practical if there are few factors and only 2 or 3 levels per factor. as shown by the chart below: BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.BITS Pilani. 1956 .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. Genichi Taguchi is a Japanese statistician and Deming prize winner who pioneered techniques to improve quality through Robust Design of products and production processes. BITS Pilani.Taguchi Methods Dr. Advanced Topic . Levels that are close to the process mean may hide the significance of factor over its likely range of values. 1956 . 9. For factors that are measured on a variable scale. Taguchi developed fractional factorial experimental designs that use a very limited number of experimental runs. it is critical to capture the natural variation of the process. Dr.When selecting the factor levels for an experiment. try to select levels at plus/minus three standard deviations from the mean value.

Traditional thinking is that any part or product within specification is equally fit for use. or nominal value (Figure 6). loss (cost) from poor quality occurs only outside the specification (Figure 5). Taguchi describes a continuous Loss Function that increases as a part deviates from the target. which is the foundation of his quality improvement philosophy. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. BITS Pilani. Taguchi makes the point that a part marginally within the specification is really little better than a part marginally outside the specification.It is useful to understand Taguchi's Loss Function. However. In that case. 1956 . As such.

1956 .The Loss Function stipulates that society's loss due to poorly performing products is proportional to the square of the deviation of the performance characteristic from its target value. BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

BITS Pilani. 1956 .Taguchi adds this cost to society (consumers) of poor quality to the production cost of the product to arrive at the total loss (cost). Taguchi uses designed experiments to produce product and process designs that are more robust . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.less sensitive to part / process variation.