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Introduction to Viruses

Recent Viral Outbreaks
• Ebola 2014, Guinnea, etc
• H1N1 Influenza A, 2009
Pandemic, Mexico
Epicenter
• SARS 2002–2003
Pandemic
• Foot and Mouth Disease,
2001, United Kingdom
• Hantavirus: Four Corners
Disease, 1993
• West Nile Virus, 1999,
New York City
• Norovirus Outbreaks
© Wesley Bocxe/Photo Researchers, Inc.
© Barry Batchelor/PA Photos/Landov

S./MPI Tubingen/Photo Researchers. • There are beneficial roles of viruses in life.Viral Impact on the Environment. . Research and Disease • Viruses impact all forms of life. Inc. © Oliver Meckes/E.O.

Viruses free up organic matter so that new life can be generated. Aquatic ecosystems – Bacteriophag es are abundant in fresh and saltwater – Bacteriophag es free up organic matter so that new life .

Lytic Bacteriophages and Nutrient Cycling .

Hershey-Chase Blender Experiment Figure 01. . It provided evidence that DNA was associated with the genetic material of the bacteriophage.05: Diagram depicting the design of Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase’s experiment.

More beneficial impacts of viruses • Gene therapy using viruses to deliver genes to treat genetic diseases • Vaccine development – Prevent infectious diseases Courtesy of James Hicks/CDC .

Viruses and Cancer • Cervical cancer (papillomaviruses) • Liver cancer (hepatitis B and C viruses) .

1.2 Early Virus Studies • Viruses are small (nm in size) .

1. .2 Early Virus Studies Definition of a virus Agents that can pass through filters that trap most known bacteria.

Viruses were first distinguished from other microorganisms by filtration 19th century bacteriological techniques identified causative agents of many diseases Infectious agent filter sterile .

1892 – Dimitri Iwanowski Studying tobacco mosaic disease Sap from infected tobacco plant filter Still caused disease Filterable agent Iwanowski had doubts .

1898 Martinus Beijerinick Repeated Iwanowski’s experiment Called the filterable agent a VIRUS Defined viruses as: Infectious agents Smaller than bacteria Unable to multiply outside a living cell .

Use of electron microscope to visualize viruses 1939 – First Visualization of viruses by EM (TMV) Courtesy of Dr. Frederick Murphy/CDC .

• Completely dependent upon host cell • Viruses possess receptor-binding proteins • Viral genome consists of DNA or RNA .

Pathogenesis..• Genome may be infectious Figure 01. Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology. S. and Control of Animal Viruses. 2003. Second Edition. ASM Press. et al.09A: Poliovirus RNA is infectious! Infectious particles of poliovirus can be produced even if only the genetic material (RNA) of the virus is introduced into cells growing in a culture dish. Adapted from Flint. .J.

J. Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology.. Pathogenesis. The integrated viral genome is called a provirus. Second Edition. and Control of Animal Viruses.Retroviruses insert their genome into cellular chromosomes Figure 01. Adapted from Flint. . S. 2003. et al.09B: Retroviruses can persist in cells by integrating their own DNA (or a copy of their RNA) into the genome of the host cell. ASM Press.

Characteristics of Viruses • Small (nm in size) • Pass through filters that retain bacteria • Completely dependent on the host cell • Contain one species of nucleic acid • Contain receptor-binding proteins • Genome may be infectious • Some viruses can persist by integrating their genome into the cellular chromosom .

Viruses came from cells that had degenerated • LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) . Viruses were precursers of cells – 2.Theories of Viral Origin • Influenza viruses fall from outer space? • Two theories emerged – 1.

Theories of Viral Origin • Many virus groups don’t share any common genes so probably don’t have a common origin .

12: Model of the evolution of life and current viral genomics.Hydrothermal origin hypothesis Figure 01. .

3 Viruses in History: Great Epidemics • Influenza • Poliomyelitis • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Courtesy of Franklin D.1. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum © National Archives and Records Administration .