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. Fine s Silt Sand 5 mm 0. 0.002 mm 0.00008 in.07 mm 0.Granular Soils Grav el 75 mm 3 in.003 in.2 in. Clay 0.

Particles visible without magnification Grain size measurable with sieves Grains do not from a coherent mass event when wet – cohesionless Nonplastic – there is no range of water content where the soil can .

Dr. Drainage occurs rapidly except under dynamic loading. earthquakes.g. Most important indicators of mechanical behavior are relative density.Permeability is moderate to high (10-6 to 10-1 m/s). Water flows easily through the voids. e. Only “drained” strength is important for conditions other than earthquake loading or rapid landslides. and ..

DENSITY RELATIVE Dr = 0 to 20% Very loose Dr = 20 to 40% Loose Dr = 40 to 60% Med Dense Dr = 60 to 80% Dense Dr = 80 to 100% Very dense .

Very low compressibility Stable during earthquakes  45° ~ .COMPRESSIBILITY Very loose Compressible Liquefiable during earthquakes  30° ~ Very dense .

Particles not visible without magnification Grain size not measurable with sieves Grain size measured by sedimentation rate Grains stick together when mixed with water due to pore water suction and physicochemical pore fluid-mineral interaction .cohesive .

Plastic – deforms without cracking over a range of water content between the liquid limit and the plastic limit Liquid (pancake batter) Liquid Limit (LL) Plastic (modeling clay) Plastic Limit (PL) Semisolid (chocolate bar) Shrinkage Limit Solid (chalk) .

Permeability is low to very low (<10-7 m/s). “Undrained” strength is low when preconsolidation pressure is low. Both “drained” and “undrained” strengths are important. Water flows slowly through the voids. Drainage takes weeks to tens of years. .

Behavior of silts varies from “sand-like” to “clay-like” as grain size decreases Most important mechanical behavior is “preconsolidation pressure pp” and applied confining pressure pp = soft pp = pp = Firm pp = 0 to 50 kPa Very 50 to 100 kPa Soft 100 to 200 kPa 200 to 400 kPa Stif .

COMPRESSIBILITY Very soft Very highly compressible Undrained shear strength < 12.5 kPa Very dense .Low compressibility Undrained shear streangth < 100 kPa .

Figure 1 illustrates the tremendous range particle sizes that may be found in a soil. Structure depends on the arrangement of particles. Particle sizes. along with the arrangement of grains and grains contact comprise the soil fabric. Where diferent sizes are shown to the same scale.Soil Composition and Engineering Properties Granular soils: The mechanical behavior of granular materials is governed primarily by their structure and the applied efective stresses. . and distributions . shapes. density. Inge luis: the insert please figure 1. and anisotropy.