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System Analysis and Design

7. Project
Management Basics
I: Requirement
Project Management Basics






Learning Objectives
 Know (Define):

project and
and project
project management
Three key
key metrics
metrics for
for any
any project
project management:
management: cost,
cost, schedule
schedule &
& Gantt
Gantt chart
chart and
and their
their functions
Critical path
path &
& slack time
Expectations management
management matrix

 Compare:

Project and
and process
process management

 Apply:

Use MS
MS Project to
to Plan
Plan your
your project
Project management
management skills
skills in
in group
group project

What’s What’sProject ProjectManagement Management .

Supplier A: $100 / bundle (5 pipes) Supplier B: $30 / pipe Your Goal: 4 * Your Budget: $ 200 Your Time: 2 minutes .Game 10 ft.

staffing. directing. planning.What is a project?  Project   aa [temporary] [temporary] sequence sequence of of unique. complex. managing. and continually improving improving the the process process of of systems development development . and and controlling controlling the development development of of an an acceptable acceptable system system at at aa minimum minimum cost cost within within aa specified specified time time frame frame  Process management   the the activity activity of documenting. within within budget. time. documenting. and and according according to to specification specification  Project management   the the process process of of scoping. organizing. unique. and connected activities activities having having one one goal goal or purpose and that that must be be completed completed by by specific specific time. directing. budget.

” The system was delivered “within budget.What is a successful project?     The resulting information system is acceptable to the customer (built to specification) The system was delivered “on time. .” The system development process had a minimal impact on ongoing business operations.

What does a project manager do? TEXTBOOK: ESTIMATE THE SIZE  Scoping – setting the boundaries of the project TEXTBOOK: WORKPLAN  Planning – identifying the tasks required to complete the project  Estimating – identifying the resources required to complete the project  Scheduling – developing the plan to complete the project STAFFING  Organizing – makingTEXTBOOK: sure members understand their roles and responsibilities TEXTBOOK: COORDINATING  Directing & Controlling – coordinating & monitoring the project  Closing – assessing success and failure (often neglected) .

Estimate the Size of a Project  There are many software packages that estimate project time or efforts  Where do we get all the numbers?  Past experience  Best practices  Methodology average  One example:  Typical system project would have:  ?% planning  ?% analysis  ?% design  ?% implementation .

files.Estimate the Size of a Project  Function Point Approach A function point is a measure of program size that is based on the system’s number and complexity of inputs. . outputs. queries. and program interfaces.

65 + 0.72 Total Adjusted Function Points (TAFP) = APC * TUFP = 243 .01 * PC = 0.Estimate the Size of a Project  Estimating Function Point Adjusted Processing Complexity (APC) = 0.

once after functional requirements are listed (after use case in UML).35  Best way to do FPA: once at project lunch. 1 and 1.Estimate the Size of a Project  Function Point: Best Practice  To make things simple. APC estimation could use values of 0.65. and once more if major modification happens .

Estimate the Size of a Project  Function Point to Programming Language .

0 × person-months1/3 .4 × thousands of lines of code Schedule time (months) = 3.Estimate the Size of a Project Effort (in person-months) = 1.

Limitations of the FPA .

Activity Planning  Activity planning includes:    Selecting a systems analysis team Estimating time required to complete each task Scheduling the project  Two tools for project planning and control are Gantt charts and PERT diagrams .

and optimistic estimates . pessimistic.Identify Tasks  Project phases  tasks or activities  Tasks can be indentified through:  SDLC  Product  Time is estimated for each task or activity  Most likely.

A Tale of Two Tools…  PERT chart – a graphical network model used to depict the interdependencies between a project’s tasks .

Estimate the maximum amount of time – the pessimistic duration (PD) 3.Estimate Task Durations 1.33 days = (1 x 2 days) + (4 x 3 days) + (1 x 6 days) 6 PD . Estimate the expected duration (ED) 4. Estimate the minimum amount of time – the optimistic duration (OD) 2. Calculate a weighted average of the most likely duration (D) as follows: D = (1 x OD) + (4 x ED) + (1 x PD) 6 OD ED 3.

PERT • PERT-Program Evaluation and Review Technique .Best for identifying the critical path .Monitoring critical path will identify shortest time to complete the project .


the leeway to fall behind on noncritical paths .PERT Diagram Advantages  Easy identification of the order of precedence  Easy identification of the critical path and thus critical activities  Easy determination of slack time.

A Tale of Two Tools…  Gantt chart – a bar chart used to depict project tasks against a calendar .

Specify Inter-task Dependencies  Finish-to-start (FS)—The finish of one task triggers the start of another task  Start-to-start (SS) —The start of one task triggers the start of another task  Finish-to-finish (FF) —Two tasks must finish at the same time  Start-to-finish (SF) —The start of one task signifies the finish of another task .

Scheduling Strategies Forward scheduling – a project scheduling approach that establishes a project start date and then schedules forward from that date Reverse scheduling – a project scheduling strategy that establishes a project deadline and then schedules backward from that date .

Timeboxing  Remember the three constraints of a project?  Which one is usually FIXED?  What if expectations cannot be met?  In timeboxing. we either ? Or ?  The key to timeboxing is the 80/20 rule . we fix the time  If change has to be made.

external agents. builders. paper. and so on. designers.Assign Resources  People  includes all the system owners. users. notebooks to toner cartridges. analysts.  Money – includes a translation of all of the above into budgeted dollars! . and clerical help that will be involved in the project in any way  Services  includes services such as a quality review that may be charged on a per use basis  Facilities and equipment  Includes all rooms and technology that will be needed to complete the project  Supplies and materials  Includes everything from pencils.

The Merrier? .Staffing  The More.

Explain and Show.Direct the Team Effort           Be Consistent. Don’t Make Promises You Can’t Keep. Encourage a Good Team Spirit. Set Perceivable Targets. Set Realistic Deadlines. Provide Support. Don’t Rely Just on [Status Reports]. . Criticize in Private. Be Aware of Morale Danger Points. Rather Than Do. Praise in Public.

Monitor and Control Progress     Progress reporting Change management Expectations management Schedule adjustments—critical path analysis (CPA) .

The most important The least important Can have only one X in each row and each column .Expectations Management Expectations management matrix – a tool used to understand the dynamics and impact of changing the The second most important parameters of a project.

Lunar Project Expectations Management .

Typical Initial Expectations for a Project .

Adjusting Expectations .

Changing Priorities .

The TheSOFT SOFTside sideof ofproject projectmanagement management .