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Formal Logic

Lecture 1

Two Powers of Man

Intellect
Capacity to know the truth

Will
Capacity to decide/choose
goodness

Natural Logic

It is an in-born ability to know


It is also called Common Sense.
This is something innate in man.

Goal

Natural
Logic

Scienti
fic
Logic

The reality about the truth

The truth is not something easy to know or


attain. Although it is simply the conformity of
the mind with reality, i.e., when our thinking
corresponds with things as they are in the real
world; nevertheless, not all men do have the
capacity for such. Hence, with correct
thinking capacity or trained mind (Scientific
Logic), man may be able to know and attain it.

Definition of Logic

Etymologically: The word Logic comes from


the Greek word logico which means a
treatise pertaining to thought or thinking.
Treatise is a written composition on some
particular subject in which its principles are
discussed or explained.

Real: is the science and art of correct thinking


and reasoning

A Treatise can now be considered as a


research essay.

On the real definition of Logic


As
Science

As Art

Logic is a demonstrated knowledge, i.e.,


an organized (systematized) body of
knowledge based on facts and principles

Art gives facility in reasoning and judging


correctly about things to be made. Logic is
an art because it guides mans reason so
he can proceed with order and ease and
without error in the constructive ability or
simply in attaining the truth.

Mere
Thinkin
g

Correct
Thinkin
g

Daydreaming

Simple Math Equations

Correct Thinking

The word thinking does not include absolutely


all mental operations but only those mental
operations:

that are directed toward the attainment of the


truth, and
by which we elaborate upon knowledge previously
possessed.

Thinking includes

ANALYSIS, COMPARISON,

CLASSIFICATION, DEFINITION, LOGICAL DIVISION,

other

INFERENTIAL OPERATIONS OF THE MIND.

and

Objects of Logic

Materi
al

All things without exception


All things that the human mind can
know
All that can be grasped by Simple
Apprehension, Judgment, and
Reasoning

Formal

Not all things as they are in


themselves and independently of
our knowledge, but things as
reproduced in the mind, together
with all the attributes and
relationships they get as a result of
mental reproduction.

The Method of Logic


Logic is principally concerned with
inference. Inference is any process
by which our mind proceed from one
or more propositions (i.e., from one or
more statements, in which anything
whatsoever is affirmed or denied) to
another proposition, so related to
original propositions, that if they are
true, it must also be true.
An Inference (process) or a Syllogism (verbal
representation) is composed of two (2) parts:
Antecedent is that from which something is inferred.
Consequent is that which is inferred from the
antecedent.

Parts of Inference:

i. All interior designers are creative thinkers


Antecedent

ii. But some creative thinkers are great artists.


iii. Hence, some great artists are interior designers.
Consequent

Three Acts of the Mind:


Simple
Apprehension
Ideas
Terms

Judgment
Judgment
Propositions

Reasoning
Argument
Syllogism

END.