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Formal Logic

Lecture 1

Two Powers of Man Intellect • Capacity to know the truth Will • Capacity to decide/choose goodness .

.Natural Logic    It is an in-born ability to know It is also called Common Sense. This is something innate in man.

Goal Natural Logic Scienti fic Logic .

The reality about the truth  The truth is not something easy to know or attain. Although it is simply the conformity of the mind with reality. Hence. nevertheless. not all men do have the capacity for such.e. when our thinking corresponds with things as they are in the real world.. man may be able to know and attain it. with correct thinking capacity or trained mind (Scientific Logic). . i.

Definition of Logic  Etymologically: The word Logic comes from the Greek word “logico” which means a treatise pertaining to thought or thinking. Treatise is a written composition on some particular subject in which its principles are discussed or explained.  Real: is the science and art of correct thinking and reasoning .

.A Treatise can now be considered as a research essay.

Logic is an art because it guides man’s reason so he can proceed with order and ease and without error in the constructive ability or simply in attaining the truth. i. .On the real definition of Logic As Science As Art • Logic is a demonstrated knowledge. an organized (systematized) body of knowledge based on facts and principles • Art gives facility in reasoning and judging correctly about things to be made.e..

Mere Thinkin g Correct Thinkin g .

Daydreaming .

Simple Math Equations .

COMPARISON. Thinking includes ANALYSIS. DEFINITION. CLASSIFICATION. and by which we elaborate upon knowledge previously possessed. other INFERENTIAL OPERATIONS OF THE MIND. and . LOGICAL DIVISION.Correct Thinking  The word thinking does not include absolutely all mental operations but only those mental operations…:    that are directed toward the attainment of the truth.

Objects of Logic Materi al • All things without exception • All things that the human mind can know • All that can be grasped by Simple Apprehension. together with all the attributes and relationships they get as a result of mental reproduction. and Reasoning Formal • Not all things as they are in themselves and independently of our knowledge. . Judgment. but things as reproduced in the mind.

in which anything whatsoever is affirmed or denied) to another proposition. from one or more statements. that if they are true.e. . Consequent – is that which is inferred from the antecedent.The Method of Logic Logic is principally concerned with inference.. so related to original propositions. Inference is any process by which our mind proceed from one or more propositions (i. An Inference (process) or a Syllogism (verbal representation) is composed of two (2) parts: Antecedent – is that from which something is inferred. it must also be true.

Consequent   .Parts of Inference: i. some great artists are interior designers. Hence. iii. All interior designers are creative thinkers Antecedent ii. But some creative thinkers are great artists.

Three Acts of the Mind: Simple Apprehension Ideas Terms Judgment Judgment Propositions Reasoning Argument Syllogism .

END. .