Network Concepts

Introduction to Networking

Network Concepts
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The Network Model Network Topology and Standards Network Protocols Communications Medium Network Hardware Planning and Operations Troubleshooting

The Network Model
How does the network interact?
Workgroup/Peer Model
100% workstations Any OS Decentralized Easy install Inexpensive 10 workstations max Low/No security

Client/Server Model
1 or more servers Network Operating System (NOS) Centralized management Difficult to install and maintain High cost Unlimited expansion Authentication/Security Features

OSI Model
Application
    Access to network services General network access Data transmission Error and status information

Presentation
     Converts messages Protocol conversion Data encryption/decryption Graphics commands Redirector software

OSI Model
Session
     Session setup Data exchanges Session teardown Security Keeps connection active

Transport
    Flow control of data Segments streams of data into packets Error checking - ACK Request retransmission of erroneous data

OSI Model
Network
      Addresses messages Translates logical -> physical Routes data transmission - MAC Packet switching Data routing Network congestion control

Data Link
 Packages raw data into data frames

Physical
   Bits -> signals Signals -> bits Manages hardware interface

IEEE 802 Standards
Category
802.1 802.2 802.3 802.4 802.5 802.6 802.7 802.8 802.9 802.10 Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier-Sense Multiple Access w/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) LANs (Ethernet) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN MAN Broadband Fiber Optic Integrated Voice and Data Networks Network Security

Description

802.11, 802.11b Wireless Networks 802.12 Demand Priority Access LAN, 100 VG-AnyLAN

Network Protocols
The format and procedure that governs the transmitting and receiving of data in a network.

IP

Internet Protocol

IPX

Internetwork Packet Exchange

NetBEUI

NetBIOS Extended User Interface

Transport Protocols
A communications protocol responsible for establishing a connection and ensuring that all data has arrived safely. It is defined in layer 4 of the OSI model. Often, the term transport protocol implies transport services, which includes the lower-level data link protocol that moves packets from one node to another.

NetBIOS/NetBEUI

Network Basic Input/Output System NetBIOS Extended User Interface

SPX/NWLink

Sequenced Packet Exchange

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

Application Protocols
A set of rules and formats (semantic and syntactic) that determines the communication behavior of application entities in the performance of application functions.
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FTP

File Transfer Protocol NetWare Core Protocol Network File System Server Message Block Simple Mail Transport Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol

NCP

NFS

SMB

SMTP

SNMP

Communications Medium - Cable
Category
RG-58 10Base2 Cat 1 Cat 2 Cat 3 Cat 4 Cat 5 Cat 6 Cat 7

Cable Type
Coaxial UTP UTP UTP/STP UTP/STP UTP/STP UTP/STP UTP/STP

Application
10Mbps data Analog voice Digital voice 16Mbps data 20Mbps data 100Mbps data 155Mbps data (proprietary) 1000Mbps data (proprietary)

Network Topology and Standards
Hardware connection method and layout
 Star
• Connected by branches to central device • Central device controls communication • Synchronized activity with polling cycles

 Bus
• Nodes connected to central media • Broadcast mode = Data collisions

 Ring
• Media forms a closed loop • Node checks data as it passes • Repeaters regenerate messages

Network Hardware
Network Adapters
Hubs
• passive • intelligent • switching

Switches Routers/Brouters Connection Points Residential Gateways

Planning and Maintenance
Considerations:
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Cost Location/Distance Potential Growth Security and Reliability Disaster Recovery

Troubleshooting – Hardware
Hardware Issues:
   

Compatibility Drivers Bottlenecks (CPU, RAM) System Resources (IRQ, I/O)

Software Issues:
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Incorrect Configuration Access Rights Collisions Protocol mismatch

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